A benefit:risk assessment for a less-frequent nivolumab 480 mg every 4 weeks + cabozantinib 40 mg every day dosing regimen was predicted using modeling and simulation of clinical trial data from nivolumab monotherapy studies and from the nivolumab 240 mg every 2 weeks + cabozantinib 40 mg every day dosing regimen, which demonstrated clinical benefit versus sunitinib in previously untreated advanced renal cell carcinoma (aRCC) in the phase III CheckMate 9ER trial (NCT03141177).
Multivariable Cox proportional hazards analyses were conducted using nivolumab monotherapy data in previously treated aRCC and data from CheckMate 9ER to evaluate progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), and grade ≥2 immune-mediated adverse events (IMAE).
Nivolumab 240 mg every 2 weeks + cabozantinib versus nivolumab monotherapy showed improvement in PFS (HR, 0.38; 95% CI, 0.31–0.47), OS (HR, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.46–0.85), and increased risk of grade ≥2 IMAEs (HR, 2.19; 95% CI, 1.79–2.67). Nivolumab exposure was not a predictor of PFS/OS or grade ≥2 IMAEs. Lower nivolumab clearance, male sex, higher baseline bodyweight, and Karnofsky performance (100) were each associated with PFS/OS improvements. Region and International Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma Database Consortium poor score were negative OS predictors. Age, baseline albumin, and programmed death ligand 1 status were not significant PFS/OS predictors. Cabozantinib was a significant grade ≥2 IMAE predictor, driven by diarrhea and hepatic events. Model-predicted PFS/OS and grade ≥2 IMAE rates were similar (<2.5% difference) for nivolumab 240 mg every 2 weeks + cabozantinib and 480 mg every 4 weeks + cabozantinib.
Comparable benefit:risk was predicted for nivolumab 480 mg every 4 weeks + cabozantinib and nivolumab 240 mg every 2 weeks + cabozantinib.