Ogawa and colleagues reported the presence of three distinct stromal subtypes in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), associated with alternative disease characteristics (1). These data are important as stromal heterogeneity defining PDAC subtypes supports developing anti-stromal therapy (1). Intriguingly, the authors report the presence of a fibroblast-activating protein (FAP)-dominant stroma (F-stroma), that compared with other stromal types was low in CD8 T cells and associated with poor survival. T-cell exclusion is well recognized as a disease progression-promoting factor and appears to be the dominant immune phenotype in PDAC (Fig. 1A). The authors suggest that F-stroma may contribute to T-cell exclusion but do not test this notion directly. Thus prompted, we performed a morphometric analysis of the spatial distribution of both T cells and FAP on 31 treatment-naïve resected PDACs. We found that T cells indeed were excluded from the tumor per se (Fig. 1A...

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