Minimal residual disease (MRD) negativity is a strong predictor for outcome in multiple myeloma. To assess V(D)J clonotype capture using the updated Adaptive next-generation sequencing (NGS) MRD assay in a clinical setting, we analyzed baseline and follow-up samples from patients with multiple myeloma who achieved deep clinical responses.
A total of 159 baseline and 31 follow-up samples from patients with multiple myeloma were sequenced using the NGS MRD assay. Baseline samples were also sequenced using a targeted multiple myeloma panel (myTYPE). We estimated ORs with 95% confidence intervals (CI) for clonotypes detection using logistic regression.
The V(D)J clonotype capture rate was 93% in baseline samples with detectable genomic aberrations, indicating presence of tumor DNA, assessed through myTYPE. myTYPE-positive samples had significantly higher V(D)J clonotype detection rates in univariate (OR, 7.3; 95% CI, 2.8–22.6) and multivariate analysis (OR, 4.4; 95% CI, 1.4–16.9; P = 0.016). Higher disease burden was associated with higher probability of V(D)J clonotype capture, meanwhile no such association was found for age, gender, or type of heavy or light immunoglobulin chain. All V(D)J clonotypes detected at baseline were detected in MRD-positive samples indicating that the V(D)J clonotypes remained stable and did not undergo further rearrangements during follow-up. Of the 31 posttreatment samples, 12 were MRD-negative using the NGS MRD assay.
NGS for V(D)J rearrangements in multiple myeloma offers a reliable and sensitive method for MRD tracking with high detection rates in the clinical setting.