CD137 agonism and CSF1R blockade augment stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) and anti-programmed death-1 in preclinical models. We evaluated the safety and efficacy of SBRT with nivolumab+urelumab (CD137 agonist) or nivolumab+cabiralizumab (CSF1R inhibitor).

Patients and Methods:

This phase I clinical trial enrolled patients with advanced solid tumors that had progressed on standard therapies. SBRT was delivered to 1–4 metastases with nivolumab+urelumab or nivolumab+cabiralizumab given concurrently and following SBRT. Dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) was the primary endpoint with anatomic location-specific SBRT doses deemed safe if ≤33% DLT frequency was observed. Secondary endpoints included RECISTv1.1 response, progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), and molecular correlative studies.


Sixty patients were enrolled, and median follow-up for living patients is 13.8 months. Of these, 23 (38%) received SBRT+nivolumab+urelumab and 37 (62%) received SBRT+nivolumab+cabiralizumab. Seven patients (12%) experienced a DLT (n = 3 grade 3, n = 4 grade 4) in the following anatomic cohorts: abdominal/pelvic (3/17, 18%), liver (1/13, 8%), central lung (2/14, 14%), and peripheral lung (1/12, 8%). Of 41 patients radiographically evaluable for best overall response including 55 radiated and 23 unirradiated RECIST target lesions, 2 had complete responses (5%), 7 had partial responses (17%), 12 had stable disease (29%), and 20 had progression (49%). Median estimated PFS and OS are 3.0 months [95% confidence interval (CI), 2.9–4.8] and 17.0 months (95% CI, 6.8–undetermined), respectively. No patients with elevated pre-SBRT serum IL8 experienced a response.


SBRT to ≤4 sites with nivolumab+urelumab or nivolumab+cabiralizumab for treating advanced solid tumors is feasible with acceptable toxicity and modest antitumor activity.

See related commentary by Rodriguez-Ruiz et al., p. 5443

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