Ipilimumab with and without anti–Programmed Death 1 (PD-1) improved overall survival (OS) in melanoma. Despite this, the optimal dose and therapeutic mechanism of ipilimumab in patients remains unclear. KEYNOTE-029 and other studies suggest that low-dose ipilimumab with anti-PD1 maintains efficacy while decreasing toxicity, emphasizing T-cell trafficking and reinvigoration as likely mechanisms.

See related article by Long et al., p. 5280

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