Today, there is a huge effort to develop cancer immunotherapeutics capable of combating cancer cells as well as the biological environment in which they can grow, adapt, and survive. For such treatments to benefit more patients, there is a great need to dissect the complex interplays between tumor cells and the host's immune system. Monitoring mechanisms of resistance to immunotherapeutics can delineate the evolution of key players capable of driving an efficacious antitumor immune response. In doing so, simultaneous and systematic interrogation of multiple biomarkers beyond single biomarker approaches needs to be undertaken. Zooming into cell-to-cell interactions using technological advancements with unprecedented cellular resolution such as single-cell spatial transcriptomics, advanced tissue histology approaches, and new molecular immune profiling tools promises to provide a unique level of molecular granularity of the tumor environment and may support better decision-making during drug development. This review will focus on how such technological tools are applied in clinical settings, to inform the underlying tumor–immune biology of patients and offer a deeper understanding of cancer immune responsiveness to immuno-oncology treatments.

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