Evidence from animal studies indicates that various N-nitroso compounds are carcinogenic. We investigated whether consumption of nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) and foods and beverages containing NDMA are carcinogenic for the lung. In a hospital-based case-control study in Uruguay, dietary intake of NDMA and its food sources was measured in 320 cases of lung cancer and 320 controls afflicted with diseases not related with tobacco use and diet. After adjusting for tobacco smoking and total energy intake, NDMA displayed a significant dose-response pattern, with a 3-fold increase in risk for the higher category of intake. The risks were slightly more elevated for adenocarcinoma of the lung. Also, salted meat consumption and beer intake were associated with an increased risk of lung cancer.

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