Previously, one of us (B. K. T.) developed an assay that measures levels of free ethanol and ethanol conjugates in urine and showed that the mean levels of these ethanol markers in confirmed alcoholics were at least 20-fold higher than those levels in control subjects. In this study, we assessed the relationship of these biomarkers with self-reported levels of alcohol intake in a multiethnic sample of Los Angeles County residents who were male and over the age of 35 years (n = 128; 40 non-Hispanic whites, 46 blacks, 17 Chinese, and 25 Japanese). Regardless of race, the mean levels of free, bound, and total (free plus bound) ethanol were lowest in nondrinkers, intermediate in weekly drinkers, and highest in daily drinkers (P = 0.0001 in all three statistical tests of differences in the three biomarkers). Stepwise discriminant analysis showed that of the three potential biomarkers, total ethanol best discriminates between the three classes of drinkers (non, weekly, and daily), and that additional inclusion of either free or bound ethanol in the discriminant function had negligible effect. Overall, mean level of total ethanol was 2.2 times higher in weekly than in nondrinkers; daily drinkers, in turn, showed a 4.2-fold increase in mean total ethanol relative to weekly drinkers. However, there was no correlation between any of the three biomarkers and self-reported level (in grams of ethanol) of average consumption in either weekly or daily drinkers whose mean intake was about 13 and 42 g of ethanol/day, respectively. As the level of urinary free ethanol and ethanol conjugates showed extraordinary differences among racial groups for a given level of self-reported ethanol intake, the data suggest possible interracial differences in the in vivo elimination rate of ethanol; this latter finding needs to be confirmed in larger studies.