Langlais et al. Page 1760

Inflammatory and insulinemic pathways have been linked to prostate cancer; thus, health behaviors that activate these pathways may impact prostate cancer survivorship. In this study, Langlais and colleagues predicted biomarker levels of inflammation, hyperinsulinemia, and insulin resistance pathways from questionnaire data among 2,056 men with prostate cancer. The authors examined the scores in relation to risk of prostate cancer progression. Over a median of 6.4 years of follow-up, the most pro-inflammatory and pro-insulinemic behaviors following a prostate cancer diagnosis were associated with a 1.6- to 2.8-fold increased risk of prostate cancer progression. Limiting inflammation and insulin hypersecretion through diet and physical activity may improve prostate cancer survivorship.

Grasso et al. Page 1769

Testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs), whose etiology is largely unknown, are believed to arise from primordial gonocytes with an altered DNA methylation reprogramming. Grasso and colleagues evaluated the association between 273 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from 28 DNA methylation-related genes and TGCT risk using summary statistics from the Genome Wide Association Study meta-analysis of the international Testicular Cancer Consortium on 10,156 TGCT cases and 179,683 controls. Four MTHFR SNPs, potentially affecting DNA methylation pattern, were associated with TGCT risk. This suggests that TGCT pathogenesis could be linked to folate cycle status, and this relation could be partly due to hereditary factors.

Graham et al. Page 1788

In the United States (US), the incidence of Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) differs by ethnicity. In a large population-based case-control study, Graham and colleagues found that having a foreign-born mother (versus a US-born mother) was associated with an increased risk of early onset HL among non-Hispanic White individuals and a decreased risk among Hispanic individuals. In addition, sex, birthweight and parental age were also linked to risk of early onset HL. The findings suggest that the etiology of early onset HL is multi-faceted, and the observed disparity warrants further evaluation.

Nygård et al. Page 1812

This article describes the randomized transition from established cytology-based screening to primary HPV-based screening in Norway. This programmatic change required substantial modifications to existing infrastructure and screening protocols, affecting activity volumes, staff training, and changes in the data-flow and communication systems. Nygård and colleagues report a relative increase of 60% in the detection of cervical precancers and 40% in cancer using HPV-based screening as compared to the cytology-based screening. Introducing new screening technology gradually and in a controlled manner should be considered in both established and novel population-based cancer screening programs and specifically implementing HPV-based screening to advance the cervical cancer elimination.