Simkin et al. Page 845

Stomach cancer is the third most common cause of cancer-related death globally. Incidence and mortality rates have declined overall across circumpolar nations however, regional studies have shown an unequal cancer burden among some subpopulations. Simkin and colleagues combined nearly 20 years of data from population-based cancer registries across eight circumpolar nations to examine cancer trends by sub-region and ethnicity/race. The authors found strong declines of incidence and mortality overall however, some northern and Indigenous populations experience elevated incidence and mortality rates. There is a need to address inequities observed among circumpolar subpopulations that may benefit from coordinated international action.

Nichols et al. Page 857

The AYA Horizon Study focuses on a diverse cohort of 11,072 adolescent and young adult women diagnosed with cancer in California and North Carolina. Detailed cancer treatment and assisted reproductive technology (ART) information are collected through health system databases, administrative insurance claims, and national ART clinic reporting systems. An ancillary online survey in this population provides complementary information on patient experience, perspectives and barriers for fertility issues among respondents. This study by Nichols and colleagues will provide unique opportunities to examine fertility and pregnancy outcomes among women of reproductive age who are diagnosed with cancer.

Phung et al. Page 927

Progestins have long been hypothesized to be protective for ovarian cancer. Phung and colleagues have provided additional evidence of this relationship using data 7,977 women with ovarian cancer and 11,820 control women. Ever use of depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate, an injectable progestin-only contraceptive, was associated with a 35% decreased risk of ovarian cancer with longer duration of use associated with lower risk. The effect the authors observed was greater than what was observed for combined oral contraceptives and similar to that of parity. The findings shed light on the etiology of ovarian cancer and are of particular interest given the rise in popularity of progestin-releasing intrauterine devices.

Vihervuori et al. Page 982

Both prostate cancer and type 2 diabetes are becoming more common, as people live longer and are increasingly overweight. Vihervuori and colleagues examined the link between anti-diabetic medication use and prostate cancer survival taking into account simultaneous use of multiple drugs. Risk of prostate cancer death was higher among antidiabetic drug users overall compared to non-users, also separately among insulin and metformin users. The risk association is driven by underlying hyperglycemia, as adjustment for blood glucose level ameliorates the risk increase. Poorly controlled type 2 diabetes should be considered as a risk factor for prostate cancer death.