Peila and Rohan Page 1107

Diabetes and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) have been associated with cancer risk at several anatomic sites but consistently only for cancers of the breast, endometrium, and colon. Using data from 476,517 participants in the UK Biobank, Peila and Rohan found that diabetes was associated with increased risk of cancers of the stomach, liver, bladder, endometrium, and lung among smokers. Compared with the normal HbA1c category, the high HbA1c category was associated with increased risk of cancers of the esophagus, liver, pancreas, and bladder and with decreased risk of prostate cancer. The results indicate that diabetes and elevated HbA1c are associated with cancer risk at several anatomic sites and underline the importance of these conditions in cancer prevention.

Oh et al. Page 1154

Recent improvements in colorectal cancer (CRC) outcomes have not been equal for all groups. Data from the California Cancer Registry were used to estimate changes in survival for CRC cases diagnosed from 1997 to 2014 (n = 197,060). Multivariable Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to evaluate the effect of sociodemographic factors on 5-year CRC-specific survival. Oh and colleagues found a decrease in survival disparities over time by race/ethnicity but a persistence of disparities by neighborhood socioeconomic status and health insurance status. Further investigation into the drivers for these disparities can help direct policy and practice toward health equity for all groups.

Wiemels et al. Page 1162

Risk factors are incompletely identified for certain childhood cancers, simply because of their rarity. In this study, Wiemels and colleagues describe an investigation of birth characteristics preceding synovial cell sarcoma, a rare tumor affecting children and young adults. The investigation using California-based registry data revealed associations with Latino origin, birth weight, and parental age. A strong association with birth order was shown, with greatest risk for the first born. These data should provide a stimulus for further research into genetic and developmental causes of this rare and aggressive cancer for which outcomes remain poor.

Arem et al. Page 1179

This study by Arem and colleagues updates nationally representative prevalence data on healthy lifestyle behaviors among cancer survivors compared with the general population. This information is critical for tracking guideline adherence and informing intervention priorities to reduce morbidity and mortality among cancer survivors. National Health Interview Survey data were used to examine changes in prevalence of health behaviors. Compared to 1998 to 2001, smoking and physical inactivity have declined; however, excess alcohol consumption has increased. Findings from this study indicate that, while we have made progress, continued health promotion efforts are needed in cancer survivors, targeted by age and cancer site.