Background: Systemic low-grade inflammation is a candidate risk factor for prostate cancer (PC) in African-American (AA) men potentially contributing to aggressive disease and mortality. Regular use of the anti-inflammatory drug aspirin is associated with decreased risk of advanced stage PC and increased disease-free survival in AA men. The chemopreventive benefits of aspirin have been attributed to inhibition of the cyclooxygenase (COX) pathway. Thromboxane A2 is an eicosanoid produced by the COX 1 enzyme in platelets. Aspirin inhibits cancer metastasis by inhibiting COX1 activity and thromboxane A2 synthesis. Hence, we assessed the role of thromboxane A2 in the development of lethal PC. Because thromboxane A2 is highly unstable, we measured its corresponding primary metabolite, urinary thromboxane b2 (TXB2), to examine the relationship of thromboxane A2 levels with PC. Method: TXB2 was measured in cases (977) and controls (1023) from the NCI-MD PC Case Control study using a mass-spectrometry-based assay. We estimated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) using unconditional logistic regression, with TXB2 levels modeled by quartiles. Multivariable models were adjusted for PC risk factors.

Results: We observed an inverse relationship between aspirin use and levels of TXB2 in both cases and controls. For cases who used aspirin, the odds of having TXB2 urinary levels in the highest quartile (Q4) were significantly reduced when compared to non-users (adjusted OR = 0.29 95%CI 0.19-0.4) and this observation remained significant when stratified by race/ethnicity (AA men: OR 0.21 95%CI 0.11-0.38) (EA men: OR 0.34 95%CI 0.19-0.61), indicating significant inhibition of TXB2 formation by aspirin. The adjusted OR for PC was 1.42 (95%CI 1.09-1.85) for men in Q4 compared to Q1 (P trend 0.002). There was an association between TXB2 and PC in AA men (Q4 adjusted OR 1.95 95%CI 1.31-2.91, P trend <0.000) but not EA men (Q4 adjusted OR 1.04 95%CI 0.72-1.49, P trend 0.58), indicating increased thromboxane A2 synthesis in AA men with PC when compared to AA men without the disease. Also, men with Q4 levels of TXB2 were more likely to be diagnosed with metastasis compared to men with Q1 levels of TXB2 (adjusted OR 6.98 95%CI 1.51-32.32, P trend 0.014), indicating more aggressive disease for cases with the highest levels of TXB2. Conclusion: Aspirin use is protective against high levels of urinary TXB2. This is of clinical interest as we report increased urinary TXB2 associates with PC in AA men as well as with more aggressive PC which disproportionally affects AA men. These findings are consistent with our previous findings that aspirin inhibits aggressive disease in AA men and highlights the potential benefit of aspirin as a chemoprotective agent for this population through inhibition of thromboxane A2 synthesis.

Citation Format: Maeve Kiely, Ginger Milne, Tsion Z. Minas, Tiffany H. Dorsey, Wei Tang, Cheryl J. Smith, Michael B. Cook, Clayton Yates, Stefan Ambs. High urinary thromboxane B2 associates with aggressive prostate cancer and inversely correlates with aspirin use [abstract]. In: Proceedings of the AACR Virtual Conference: Thirteenth AACR Conference on the Science of Cancer Health Disparities in Racial/Ethnic Minorities and the Medically Underserved; 2020 Oct 2-4. Philadelphia (PA): AACR; Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2020;29(12 Suppl):Abstract nr PO-157.