Paskett et al. Page 3

Those with a family history of colorectal cancer (CRC) are at higher risk for developing CRC and should get screening colonoscop. at prescribed intervals. This study, by Paskett and colleagues, sought to see if adding a patient navigator (PN)—who assessed barriers to adhering to a personal prescription for CRC screening in first-degree relatives (FDR) of CRC patients—versus telling the FDRs their personal prescription would better promote adherence to screening. PN improved adherence in FDRs who needed a colonoscopy. These results can assist in directing limited resources for PN to those who will truly benefit and add to the growing information on the effectiveness of PN.

Batyrbekova et al. Page 63

In many countries, more and more people with a history of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection have an increased risk of primary liver cancer (PLC). This study, by Batyrbekova and colleagues, of a national cohort with HCV diagnosis in Sweden between 1990 and 2015 demonstrates a considerable increase in PLC incidence in the last decade, and an extremely high relative risk, SIR 73, among those infected for more than 35 years. Incidence data were more complete with information from both the Cancer and the Death registers, and the authors recommend this approach for future studies of temporal trends of PLC during the direct-acting antiviral era.

Williams et al. Page 112

The extent and impact of racial disparities among different populations of patients with stage I non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remain unclear. Williams and colleagues used the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-Medicare and Veterans Affairs (VA) cancer registries to compare Black-White disparities in treatment and survival among older men with stage I NSCLC. In both VA and SEER-Medicare patients, Blacks were less likely than Whites to get any treatment, and less likely to have surgery only among those treated. Survival was similar in Blacks and Whites when accounting for treatment. This supports the hypothesis that equal treatment correlates with equal survival outcomes, but efforts are still needed to understand treatment barriers.

Huang et al. Page 200

Dominant and nondominant ovarian cancers, which characterize tumors primarily confined to one ovary versus those spread across two ovaries or peritoneal tumors, may indicate origins of carcinogenesis. Using data from nine prospective studies, Huang and colleagues found that reproductive and hormonal factors, such as oral contraceptive use and parity, were more strongly associated with risk of dominant ovarian cancer that may originate from ovarian surface epithelium or endometriotic tissues. These results provide further insights into the pathways through which reproductive and hormonal factors influence ovarian cancer risk.