Niccolai et al. Page 1446

Vaccines that prevent infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) types 16 and 18 have been available in the United States since 2006. High-grade cervical lesions are important for monitoring vaccine impact because they are strong surrogates for cancer. Niccolai and colleagues examined trends in high-grade cervical lesions among women ages 21 to 39 years using a surveillance statewide registry in Connecticut. From 2008 to 2011, HPV vaccine initiation increased among adolescent females and high-grade cervical lesions declined. This is the first report of declines in cervical neoplasia in the United States since HPV vaccines became available.

Nault et al. Page 1343

Proteoglycan expression is frequently altered in cancer. To evaluate proteoglycans as biomarkers for liver cancer, Nault and colleagues measured serum proteoglycan levels in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis with and without hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Serum levels of some proteoglycans were elevated in patients with advanced HCC, and high proteoglycan levels were associated with greater risk of death. Proteoglycans could be useful biomarkers to manage patients with alcoholic cirrhosis and HCC.

Kabat et al. Page 1353

Results from studies in both Western and Asian populations suggest that height is a risk factor for various cancers. Kabat and colleagues examined the association between height and cancer to confirm these findings. They found that height was significantly associated with the risk of all cancers and several site-specific cancers. These associations were insensitive to adjustment for confounders, and little evidence of effect modification was apparent.

Spillane et al. Page 1364

Preclinical evidence suggests a beneficial effect of metformin in colorectal cancer. Spillane and colleagues investigated the associations between metformin exposure and colorectal cancer–specific survival using information from the National Cancer Registry Ireland. High-intensity exclusive metformin use was associated with a significant reduction in colorectal cancer–specific mortality. Additional studies are needed to confirm these intriguing findings.