Age and HPV-Related Cervical Cancers
de Sanjose et al. Page 1313
Using data from two large human papillomavirus (HPV) genotyping studies, de San Jose and colleagues looked at age-specific occurrence of cervical cancer in relation to HPV16 and HPV18. They report a decreasing proportion of HPV16/18-positive cancers with increasing age in both studies. Vaccination against HPV16/18 may have a greater impact on cervical cancers in women under 65 than in women aged 65 and older. These data will inform the impact of HPV vaccination with cervical cancer screening activities.
Nitrate and Prostate Cancer
Wu et al. Page 1210
Although nitrate and nitrite supplements have been shown to improve cardiovascular health, concern has been expressed about the possibility that they could contribute to the development of cancer. Wu and colleagues conducted a nested case–control study to explore this relationship. They did not find an increased risk of prostate cancer associated with higher plasma nitrate levels. However, a potential protective association was found against aggressive forms of prostate cancer.
Colorectal Cancer Genetic Risk Factors
Edwards et al. Page 1219
Colorectal cancer is known to aggregate in families; however, many of the genetic determinants of colorectal cancer risk are not known. Edwards and colleagues conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of colorectal adenoma cases and controls. The most significant single-nucleotide polymorphisms were either previously associated with colorectal cancer in GWAS or have been biologically linked to benign growths in other tissues. These results suggest that known risk factors for colorectal cancer are necessary but not sufficient for carcinogenesis.
Family Disclosure of BRCA1/2 Test Results
Tercyak et al. Page 1260
Although BRCA1/2 genetic testing is discouraged in minors, mothers may disclose their own results to their children. The factors affecting patients' disclosure decisions are unknown. Tercyak and colleagues examined family communication about BRCA1/2 testing and report that most patients who underwent these genetic tests disclosed the results to their teenage and young adult children. Women who did not disclose their test results to their children reported less satisfaction with their decisions.