Tantamango-Bartley et al. Page 286

Approximately 30% of all cancers in developed countries can be attributed to diet and nutrition. This prospective study compares the association of several distinct vegetarian diet subtypes with non-vegetarian diets for overall cancer incidence. The strongest inverse correlation with diet and cancer comes with the analyses of gastrointestinal and a female-specific cancer. Little benefit in diet was seen for respiratory tract cancers. Vegan diets exhibited the most potent effect in decreasing overall cancer incidence as well as exhibiting the most significant decrease in female-specific cancers. Although the results confirm that vegetarian diets confer protection, some diets are clearly more effective than others and some cancers are more sensitive to diet than others. The significant results from this preliminary analysis awaits longer follow-up to provide additional numbers of cancers and cancer subtypes.

Delahanty et al. Page 216

Among the many risk factors associated with endometrial cancer, genetics plays a prominent yet undefined role. Chronic inflammation has been known to be a critical component in the susceptibility to cancer. The current report provides intriguing links between genetic polymorphisms in genes linked to inflammation and endometrial cancer risk. In this analysis, the investigators identified 24 loci linked to the inflammatory process in stage 1 and confirmed that 2 loci were significantly associated with endometrial cancer in a larger, more comprehensive stage 2 analysis. The results confirmed the hypothesis that genetic polymorphisms in genes linked to the inflammatory pathway may contribute to the genetic susceptibility to endometrial cancer.

Santana et al. Page 270

Obesity is a well-established risk factor for the development of breast cancer and a poor prognostic indicator. It has been demonstrated that white adipose fat is a potent source of bioactive proteins. Santana and colleagues explored the link between levels of the acute phase protein, serum amyloid A (SAA), obesity, and breast cancer in postmenopausal women. This study identified a significant positive correlation between levels of SAA and the cancer patients' body mass index. The levels of SAA were higher in the more aggressive and worse prognostic ER cancers in comparison with ER+ cancers. Larger studies will be needed to determine the usefulness of SAA as a biomarker aggressive breast cancer.

Hussain et al. Page 295

B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma is the most commonly diagnosed cancer amongst HIV-infected people. Identifying the at-risk population should provide a great benefit to facilitate monitoring and early treatment. The study presented by Hussain and colleagues suggests that serum levels of the chemokine CXCL13 might be that critical biomarker. The results demonstrate that there is a significant increase in serum levels of CXCL13 in non-Hodgkin lymphoma HIV-infected patients as early as 3 years before lymphoma diagnosis. Haplotype analysis failed to identify a significant linkage between CXCL13 or CXCR5 polymorphisms and increased expression; however, one CXCL13 allele was shown to have a protective influence in both serum levels and lymphoma risk. These results reveal a link between CXCL13 expression and lymphoma development.