A population-based nested case-control study was conducted to determine the relation of prediagnostic serum levels of testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, prolactin, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, estrone, and estradiol to the risk of subsequent prostate cancer. Serum specimens of study subjects were available from a blood collection campaign in Washington County, Maryland, in 1974. Serum hormone levels of 98 histologically confirmed prostate cancer cases diagnosed in the subsequent 13 years were compared to those of 98 controls who were individually matched to cases on the basis of age (within weeks), sex, and race. There were no significant differences in levels of these hormones between cases and controls, although elevated levels of luteinizing hormone and of testosterone:dihydrotestosterone ratios were associated with mild increased risks of prostate cancer.

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