Su et al., Page 327

Aldehyde dehydrogenase 1A1 (ALDH1A1) has been suggested as a marker for tumor initiating, or cancer stem-like cells in some human malignancies. In this study, Su and colleagues investigated the stem cell-related function and significance of ALDH1A1 expression in bladder carcinoma. The authors found high ALDH1A1 expression in 26% of human bladder cancer specimens and this high expression correlated with advanced pathological stage, tumor progression, metastasis, and lower patient survival. These studies indicate that ALDH1A1 may be a useful marker to identify bladder cancer patients who might benefit from adjuvant therapy targeting tumor initiating cells.

Fang et al., Page 319

Despite extensive media attention about the recently approved human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine, only 37% of 13- to 17-year-old females have initiated the vaccine series. Fang and colleagues examined the national acceptability of the HPV vaccine among U.S. adults with female children to investigate if certain health behaviors correlate with vaccine acceptability. Nearly half (43%) of all respondents indicated they either were not sure or would not have their daughter vaccinated. Health behaviors associated with a lower HPV vaccine acceptance include lack of physical activity and use of complementary or alternative therapies. These results help illuminate the relationship between certain health behaviors and the uptake of new cancer prevention strategies.

Schayer et al., Page 338

There are relatively few methods that reliably measure a person's retrospective exposure to cigarette smoke. In this study, Schayer and colleagues explored the use of the radioactive isotope 210Pb as a measure of cigarette use. The authors measured levels of 210Pb in urine samples from 250 subjects and found that 210Pb levels correlated with selfreported cigarette use and urinary cotinine concentrations. Data modeling predicted that 210Pb levels would fall to 50% of steady-state levels within 90 days in a long-term smoker who suddenly quits. These data indicate that 210Pb can be used to assess the probability that a subject has smoked in the past few months.

Razavi et al., Page 475

Estrogen-alone therapy (ET) or estrogen and progestin (EPT) therapies have been commonly used to alleviate menopausal symptoms. Short-term EPT is considered safe relative to endometrial cancer risk, but the endometrial safety of longterm EPT is uncertain. Razavi and colleagues conducted a case-control study of endometrial cancer cases within the California Teachers Study cohort and report that long-term (≥10 years) use of ET, sequential EPT with <10 days per month progestin, and continuous-combined EPT (≥25 days/month progestin) were all associated with an elevated risk of endometrial cancer. These findings suggest that long-term hormone therapies pose greater risks for the endometrium than initially assumed.