The effects of two doses of cereal fiber and vegetable fiber on mean transit time, stool weight, fecal pH and fecal bile acids were examined in 34 healthy volunteers. Subjects consumed five diets in random order for 23 days each, consisting of a fiber-free liquid diet and quick breads containing 0 g added dietary fiber, 10 g fiber as wheat bran (WB), 30 g fiber as WB, 10 g fiber as vegetable fiber (VF), and 30 g fiber as VF. Fecal wet and dry weights were 43% and 19% higher, respectively, on WB as compared to VF (P < 0.0001). Fecal pH was lower on WB than on VF (P < 0.0001) and decreased with increased fiber intake (P < 0.005). Transit time was 36% faster with WB than with VF (P < 0.0001). There was no VF dose effect on transit time, but transit time was 23% faster on 30 g WB than on 10 g WB (P = 0.04). Total bile acid concentrations decreased with increased fiber dose (P < 0.0001) but were not significantly different between WB and VF. Daily total bile acid excretion was 14% lower on VF compared to WB (P = 0.01). There was no VF dose effect on total bile acid excretion, but excretion was 13% lower on 30 g WB than on 10 g WB (P = 0.04). These findings are consistent with the capacity of fiber to alter potential risk factors for colon cancer but do not explain differences in epidemiological data between vegetable and cereal intake.