The Polyp Prevention Trial (PPT) is a multicenter randomized controlled trial to evaluate whether a low-fat, high-dietary fiber, high-fruit and -vegetable eating pattern will reduce the recurrence of adenomatous polyps of the large bowel. Men and women who had one or more adenomas removed recently were randomized into either the intervention (n = 1037) or control (n = 1042) arms. Food frequency questionnaire data indicate that PPT participants at the beginning of the trial consumed 36.8% of total energy from fat, 9.7 g of dietary fiber/1000 kcal, and 3.8 daily servings of fruits and vegetables. Baseline dietary characteristics, including intake of fat, fiber, and fruits and vegetables, as well as other macro- and micronutrients, were similar in the two study groups. The intervention participants receive extensive dietary and behavioral counseling to achieve the PPT dietary goals of 20% of total energy from fat, 18 g/1000 kcal of dietary fiber, and 5-8 daily servings (depending on total caloric intake) of fruits and vegetables. Control participants do not receive such counseling and are expected to continue their usual intake. Dietary intake in both groups is mentioned annually using a 4-day food record (also completed at 6 months by intervention participants only) and a food frequency questionnaire, with a 10% random sample of participants completing an annual unscheduled 24-h telephone recall. Blood specimens are drawn and analyzed annually for lipids and carotenoids. This article provides details on the rationale and design of the PPT dietary intervention program and describes the participant baseline dietary intake data characteristics.

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