Cancer prevention and control involves a diverse spectrum of activities that range from preventing the disease to providing rehabilitation to its survivors. The range of activities included within the definition of cancer prevention and control makes it difficult to determine factors that would predict accrual to specific cancer prevention and control trials. The participation of 36 CCOP organization in the National Cancer Institute-sponsored Breast Cancer PRevention TRial (BCPT) presented the opportunity to assess the ability of Community Clinical Oncology Program (CCOPs) to enroll subjects in one of the nation's first large-scale cancer prevention trials and to compare characteristics of CCOP accrual to the BCPT with factors associated with accrual by CCOPs to cancer treatment and other cancer prevention and control clinical trials. Although representing only 13% of participating health care organizations, CCOPs presently contribute nearly 30% of total BCPT accrual. Comparison of regression models representing accrual to treatment, cancer control, and chemoprevention (i.e., BCPT) protocols shows similar predictors between treatment and chemoprevention models. Cancer control models, however, did not share similar predictors. Thus, accrual to chemoprevention trials is associated, to a greater extent, with the characteristics that facilitate accrual to treatment trials rather than to cancer control trials. Results have implications for the planning and ongoing management of cancer treatment, control, and chemoprevention clinical trials.

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