Benafif et al.Page 845

With the development of high-throughput genotyping technology, large genome-wide association studies (GWAS) involving thousands of cancer cases and controls have been carried out to identify genetic variants that contribute to prostate cancer risk. The utility of these variants in genetic profiling is now being investigated in the context of prostate cancer screening and may offer an attractive method of targeting population screening to those at highest risk of disease development. This Review article by Benafif and colleagues summarizes the progress and development of GWAS in the study of prostate cancer genetics.

Mazeh et al. Page 858

There is a need for markers that recognize malignant thyroid nodules, for which there is uncertainty regarding the presence of cancer despite fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) assessment (10–40%).

In this study by Mazeh and colleagues, FNAB was performed on thyroid nodules. Classification accuracy by microRNA profiling was determined versus the pathological diagnoses. The authors found 19 miRNA that can accurately reveal malignancy in indeterminate thyroid nodules, confirming the perception that miRNA are promising biomarkers, and providing an unbiased list of candidates. The study provides guidance for the design of follow-up prospective trials to test the usefulness of our approach. It also calls for basic research to delineate the role of dysregulated miRNA in thyroid carcinogenesis.

Duffy et al. Page 864

In the Sun Solutions study by Duffy and colleagues, 357 Operating Engineers were randomized to four arms of the Sun Solutions intervention: 1) education; 2) education and text message reminders; 3) education and mailed sunscreen; and 4) education, text message reminders, and mailed sunscreen. Sunscreen use improved in all four conditions. There were greater increases in sunscreen use in the two conditions which included mailed sunscreen. Furthermore, there was a decrease in reported sunburns in all four conditions. Since skin cancer rates are increasing, especially among outdoor workers, the Sun Solutions intervention may be an effective method to modify skin cancer–related behaviors.

Park et al. Page 928

Coffee intake has been associated with risk of various cancers, but the findings are inconsistent. While coffee drinking is very popular in most populations of the world, nearly all previous studies have been conducted among whites. Such results may not be generalizable to other ethnic/racial populations with different lifestyles and disease susceptibility. In this analysis by Park and colleagues of the Multiethnic Cohort Study, a large and the most diverse prospective study to date, coffee drinking is associated with a lower risk of liver, ovarian, thyroid, and endometrial cancers and melanoma. These results improve our understanding of the association of coffee consumption with cancer risk and strengthen the evidence that coffee drinking can be part of a healthy lifestyle.