Reduced Nicotine Content Cigarettes
Hatsukami et al. Page 1015
Reduced nicotine content (RNC) cigarettes have been effective in decreasing the number of cigarettes smoked, providing nicotine withdrawal relief, and facilitating smoking cessation efforts. Hatsukami and colleagues examined the effects of RNC in combination with the nicotine patch on smoking behavior, toxicant exposure, withdrawal discomfort, and long-term abstinence. Study participants using RNC along with a nicotine patch had lower rates of smoking and lower carbon monoxide levels. These findings should have an impact on smoking cessation programs and provide incentive to reduce nicotine content in cigarettes.
Adenoma-to-CRC Transition Rates
Brenner et al. Page 1043
Most colorectal cancers (CRC) are thought to develop from adenomas, and the analysis of adenoma-to-CRC transition rates is crucial for designing effective CRC screening programs. In this large study, Brenner and colleagues derived adenoma-to-CRC transition rates based on data from over 3.5 million colonoscopy screening program participants. Transition rates for advanced adenoma to CRC were similar in men and women, and transition rates increased with screening participant age. These results will be instrumental in forming CRC screening strategies.
Heartburn and Head and Neck Cancer
Langevin et al. Page 1061
Heartburn, or gastric reflux, is believed to be a risk factor for the development of head and neck cancer. Langevin and colleagues examined this relationship and report that patients who presented with a history of frequent heartburn had an elevated risk of squamous cancers of the pharynx and larynx. In addition, they observed an inverse association between antacid use and head and neck cancer. These findings suggest that it will be important to explore the possible chemopreventive role of antacids.
NHL Incidence Trends
Shiels et al. Page 1069
For many years, non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) incidence has been increasing worldwide, but understanding NHL incidence trends is complicated because HIV infection increases NHL risk. To better understand NHL trends, Shiels and colleagues used data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results program separate HIV-infected NHL cases from those in the general population. The authors report that NHL incidence rates in the United States have plateaued over the past decade, independent of HIV infection.