Non-Hispanic American Indian and Alaska Native (NH-AI/AN) people exhibit a disproportionate incidence of kidney cancer. Nationally aggregated data do not allow for a comprehensive description of regional disparities in kidney cancer incidence among NH-AI/AN communities. This study examined kidney cancer incidence rates and trends among NH-AI/AN compared with non-Hispanic White (NHW) populations by geographic region.


Using the United States Cancer Statistics American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) Incidence Analytic Database, age-adjusted incidence rates (per 100,000) of kidney cancers for NH-AI/AN and NHW people for the years 2011 to 2020 combined using surveillance, epidemiology, and end Results (SEER)stat software. Analyses were restricted to non-Hispanic individuals living in purchased/referred care delivery area (PRCDA) counties. Average annual percent changes (AAPCs) and trends (1999–2019) were estimated using Joinpoint regression analyses.


Rates of kidney cancer incidence were higher among NH-AI/AN compared with NHW persons in the United States overall and in five of six regions. Kidney cancer incidence rates also varied by region, sex, age, and stage of diagnosis. Between 1999 and 2019, trends in kidney cancer rates significantly increased among NH-AI/AN males (AAPC = 2.7%) and females (AAPC = 2.4%). The largest increases were observed for NH-AI/AN males and females aged less than 50 years and those diagnosed with localized-stage disease.


Study findings highlight growing disparities in kidney cancer incidence rates between NH-AI/AN and NHW populations.


Differences in geographic region, sex, and stage highlight the opportunities to decrease the prevalence of kidney cancer risk factors and improve access to preventive care.

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