Second malignant neoplasm (SMN) is one of the most severe long-term risks for childhood cancer survivors (CCS), significantly impacting long-term patient survival. While radiotherapy and chemotherapy are known risk factors, the observed inter-individual variability suggests a genetic component contributing to the risk of SMN. This article aims to conduct a systematic review of genetic factors implicated in the SMN risk among CCS. Searches were performed in PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Sciences. Eighteen studies were included (eleven candidate gene studies, three genome-wide association studies, and four whole exome/genome sequencing studies). The included studies were based on different types of first cancers, investigated any or specific types of SMN, and focused mainly on genes involved in drug metabolism and DNA repair pathways. These differences in study design and methods used to characterize genetic variants limit the scope of the results and highlight the need for further extensive and standardized investigations. However, this review provides a valuable compilation of SMN risk-associated variants and genes, facilitating efficient replication and advancing our understanding of the genetic basis for this major risk for CCS.

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