Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) subtypes differ in molecular characteristics and prognosis. We investigated the associations of RCC subtype with patient demographics, comorbidity, and neighborhood socioeconomic status (nSES).
Using linked California Cancer Registry and Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development data, we identified history of hypertension, diabetes, and kidney disease prior to RCC diagnosis in Asian/Pacific Islander, non-Latino Black, Latino, and non-Latino White adults diagnosed with their first pathologically confirmed RCC from 2005 through 2015. We used multinomial multivariable logistic regression to model the association of demographics, comorbidity, and nSES with clear-cell, papillary, and chromophobe RCC subtype.
Of the 40,016 RCC cases included, 62.6% were clear cell, 10.9% papillary, and 5.9% chromophobe. The distribution of subtypes differed strikingly by race and ethnicity, ranging from 40.4% clear cell and 30.4% papillary in non-Latino Black adults to 70.7% clear cell and 4.5% papillary in Latino adults. In multivariable analysis, non-Latino Black individuals had a higher likelihood of presenting with papillary (OR, 3.99; 95% confidence interval, 3.61–4.42) and chromophobe (OR, 1.81; 1.54–2.13) versus clear-cell subtype compared with non-Latino White individuals. Both hypertension (OR, 1.19; 1.10–1.29) and kidney disease (OR, 2.38; 2.04–2.77 end-stage disease; OR, 1.52; 1.33–1.72 non–end-stage disease) were associated with papillary subtype. Diabetes was inversely associated with both papillary (OR, 0.63; 0.58–0.69) and chromophobe (OR, 0.61; 0.54–0.70) subtypes.
RCC subtype is independently associated with patient demographics, and comorbidity.
Targeted RCC treatments or RCC prevention efforts may have differential impact across population subgroups.