Endogenous and exogenous metabolite concentrations may be susceptible to variation over time. This variability can lead to misclassification of exposure levels and in turn to biased results. To assess the reproducibility of metabolites, the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) is computed. A literature search in three databases from 2000 until May 2021 was conducted to identify studies reporting ICCs for blood and urine metabolites. This review includes 192 studies, of which 31 studies are included in the meta-analyses. The ICCs of 359 single metabolites are reported and the ICCs of 10 metabolites were meta-analysed. The reproducibility of the single metabolites ranges from poor to excellent and is highly compound dependent. The reproducibility of BPA (bisphenol A), MEP (mono-ethyl phthalate), MnBP (mono-n-butyl phthalate), MEHP (mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate), MEHHP (mono(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate), MBzP (mono-benzyl phthalate), MEOHP (mono-(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate), methylparaben and propylparaben, is poor to moderate (ICC median: 0.32; range: 0.15-0.49) and for 25-Hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) excellent (ICC: 0.95; 95% CI: 0.90, 0.99). Pharmacokinetics, mainly the half-life of elimination and exposure patterns, can explain reproducibility. This review describes the reproducibility of the blood and urine exposome, provides a vast dataset of ICC estimates, and hence constitutes a valuable resource for future reproducibility, clinical and epidemiological studies.

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