One in three adults in the United States has obesity; a chronic disease that is implicated in the etiology of at least 14 cancers. Cancer is the leading cause of death among U.S. Hispanic/Latino adults and the second most common cause of death, after cardiovascular disease, for Black adults. Our country's legacy in overt discrimination (e.g., slavery, segregation) generated inequities across all spheres in which people function as defined by the socioecological model—biological, individual, community, structural—and two of the many areas in which it manifests today are the disproportionate burden of obesity and obesity-related cancers in populations of color. Inequities due to environmental, social, and economic factors may predispose individuals to poor lifestyle behaviors by hindering an individual's opportunity to make healthy lifestyles choices. In this review, we examined the evidence on obesity and the lifestyle guidelines for cancer prevention in relation to cancer risk and outcomes for Black and Hispanic/Latino adults. We also discussed the role of structural and societal inequities on the ability of these two communities to adopt and maintain healthful lifestyle behaviors in accordance with the lifestyle guidelines for cancer prevention and control.

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