Mammography enables early detection of breast cancer, a critical factor in improving treatment outcomes and breast cancer mortality. Yet, not all women benefit equally, and striking racial disparities in breast cancer mortality persist, with Black women 40% more likely to die from breast cancer compared with non-Hispanic White women. The current issue of Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention presents three informative reports revealing racial and ethnic variations in mammography's performance in risk stratification, detection, and surveillance. The performance dynamics of mammography across different racial and ethnic groups highlight the urgency for additional research and innovative interventions to ensure equitable breast cancer control. We emphasize a pressing need for a comprehensive evaluation of multilevel influences on the performance and implementation of mammography in racially and ethnically diverse populations, complemented by equally urgent efforts to address factors influencing the risk of aggressive tumor subtypes and timely and effective treatment delivery.