The Hispanic/Latino(x) population (H/L) in the United States of America is heterogeneous and fast growing. Cancer is the number one cause of death among H/Ls, accounting for 21% of deaths. Whereas for the most common cancers, incidence rates are lower in H/Ls compared with non-H/L White (NHW) individuals, H/Ls have a higher incidence of liver, stomach, cervical, penile, and gallbladder cancers. H/L patients tend to be diagnosed at more advanced stages for breast, colorectal, prostate, and lung cancers, and melanoma compared with NHW individuals. Etiologic and cancer outcomes research among H/Ls lags other populations. In this review, we provide a summary of challenges, opportunities, and research priorities related to cancer etiology, cancer outcomes, and survivorship to make progress in addressing scientific gaps. Briefly, we prioritize the need for more research on determinants of obesity, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and its progression to liver cancer, stomach and gallbladder cancers, and pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia. We emphasize the need to improve cancer screening, early detection of cancer, and survivorship care. We highlight critical resources needed to make progress in cancer epidemiologic studies among H/L populations, including the importance of training the next generation of cancer epidemiologists conducting research in H/Ls.