Infrequent provider recommendations continue to be a key barrier to human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination, including among adolescents at higher risk for future HPV cancers. To inform future interventions, we sought to characterize disparities in health care providers' HPV vaccine recommendation for U.S. adolescents. We systematically reviewed studies published in 2012–2019 that assessed provider HPV vaccine recommendations for adolescents aged 9–17. Following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines, we identified 52 eligible studies and used a standardized abstraction form to assess recommendation prevalence by adolescent demographic characteristics. Studies consistently found that fewer parents of boys than girls reported receiving HPV vaccine recommendations (14 studies, range of difference: −11 to −35 percentage points). Studies also found fewer recommendations for adolescents who were younger (2 studies, −3% to −12% points), non-White (3 studies, −5% to −7% points, females only), lower income (3 studies, −1% to −8% points), or uninsured (1 study, −21% points, males only). Studies identified geographic disparities in southern and rural areas. In conclusion, findings from this systematic review identify disparities in HPV vaccine recommendation that may contribute to suboptimal vaccine uptake. Efforts to improve providers’ HPV vaccine communication should focus on increasing recommendation consistency, especially for lower-income, non-White, and rural adolescents.

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