One in three cancer patients reports financial hardship. Cancer-related financial hardship is associated with diminished quality of life, treatment nonadherence, and early mortality. Over 80% of NCI-designated cancer centers provide some form of oncology financial navigation (OFN). Although interest in OFN has grown, there is little scientific evidence to guide care delivery. We conducted a scoping review to assess the evidence of OFN's feasibility and preliminary efficacy and determine its core components/functions. Papers were included that (i) evaluated a clinical intervention to reduce financial hardship in patients with cancer or caregivers by facilitating access to resources, (ii) were conducted in the United States, and (iii) were published since 2000. Of 681 titles, 66 met criteria for full-text review, and six met full inclusion/exclusion criteria. The FN literature consists of descriptive studies and pilot trials focused on feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary efficacy. The studies showed that OFN implementation and evaluation are feasible; however, efficacy was difficult to evaluate because the studies were limited by small sample sizes (attributed to low patient participation). Most studies were conducted in urban, academic medical centers—which are less likely to be used by the poor and patients of color, who have the highest risk of financial hardship. The studies did not attempt to address the issue of underlying poverty at the individual and community level and whether OFN could be effectively adapted for these care environments. Future OFN programs must be tested with underserved and racially diverse patient populations, and evaluation efforts should aim to understand patient-reported barriers to participation.

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