Not all populations are poised to benefit from advancing genomics in gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (GEP-NENs), as genomics have focused on White patients. This study aimed to evaluate racial populations represented in genomic studies of GEP-NENs and to provide evidence of differential genomic findings between racial groups in GEP-NENs. Manuscripts analyzing DNA, RNA, or DNA methylation in GEP-NENs were queried using PUBMED and EMBASE. NIH race/ethnicity term frequency was then determined by Natural Language Processing, followed by manual evaluation of tumor types and subjects by racial group. Immunohistochemistry of institutional tissue micro-arrays and analysis of AACR GENIE data analyzed was performed to determine mutational differences between Black and White pancreatic NEN (pNEN) patients. 313 manuscripts conducted the requisite genomic analyses, 16 of which included subject race data. Race data were included in 13/184 DNA, 4/107 RNA, and 1/54 DNA Methylation analyses. These studies included 89% White subjects (n=2032), 5.8% Asian subjects (n=132), 4.0% “Other” subjects (n=93), and 1.2% Black subjects (n=27). No Native American/Alaska Native, Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander, or ethnically Hispanic/Latinx subjects were represented. There were significant differences in MEN1 mutations among Black and White patients in immunohistochemical (13:40) and GENIE data (24:268 patients per group, respectively), with 9 additional genes differentially mutated in the GENIE dataset. Genomic sequencing data for GEP-NENs is almost racially homogenous. Differences in pNEN genomics may exist between racial groups, highlighting a need for diversity in future genomic analyses of GEP-NENs to understand the putative influence of interracial genomic variation on GEP-NEN prevention, diagnosis, and therapy.

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