Fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma (FLC) is a rare liver cancer that is driven by a fusion of DNAJB1 and PRKACA, the catalytic subunit of protein kinase A (PKA). PKA activity is controlled through regulatory proteins that both inhibit catalytic activity and control localization, and an excess of regulatory subunits ensures PRKACA activity is inhibited. Here, we found an increase in the ratio of catalytic to regulatory units in FLC patient tumors driven by DNAJB1::PRKACA using mass spectrometry, biochemistry, and immunofluorescence, with increased nuclear localization of the kinase. Overexpression of DNAJB1::PRKACA, ATP1B1::PRKACA, or PRKACA, but not catalytically inactive kinase, caused similar transcriptomic changes in primary human hepatocytes, recapitulating the changes observed in FLC. Consistently, tumors in patients missing a regulatory subunit or harboring an ATP1B1::PRKACA fusion were indistinguishable from FLC based on the histopathological, transcriptomic, and drug-response profiles. Together, these findings indicate that the DNAJB1 domain of DNAJB1::PRKACA is not required for FLC. Instead, changes in PKA activity and localization determine the FLC phenotype

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