Introduction: Treatment options for patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) have expanded in recent years. Although new treatments have demonstrated efficacy in clinical trials, less is known about their effect on outcomes in routine clinical practice. We examined outcomes for patients with newly-diagnosed AML (ND-AML) using real world data (RWD).

Methods: This retrospective observational study was conducted using the COTA real-world (rw) database, a de-identified source of longitudinal electronic health record data pertaining to the diagnosis, management, and outcomes of patients with cancer. Adult patients with ND-AML, diagnosed January 1, 2013 to March 20, 2023 were included. First-line treatment regimens were grouped into therapeutic categories and outcomes were summarized. The index date was defined as date of initiation of first-line therapy.

Results: Among 2516 patients with ND-AML included (Table), the most common regimens used were intensive chemotherapy with cytarabine (IC w/ara-C), hypomethylating agents with venetoclax (HMA+ven), and HMA alone. Complete response rate was highest in patients treated with IC w/ara-C or investigational regimen(s). Median overall survival (OS) was 16 mo overall, with highest median OS seen in patients treated with IC w/ara-C and investigational regimen(s). Median OS for patients treated with HMA+ven was 13.5 mo. Thirty-day mortality was lowest in patients treated with IC w/ara-C, CPX-351 (liposomal daunorubicin + cytarabine), and HMA+ven.

Conclusions: Results suggest that IC w/ara-C remains the standard of care for most patients with ND-AML and this regimen has a higher CR rate and median OS. Variation of patient demographics and clinical characteristics across treatment groups did not permit cross-treatment comparisons, though future analyses evaluating these subgroups may provide further insight into effectiveness and safety of AML regimens in routine care for populations underrepresented in clinical trials.

rwCR rateMedian rwOS30-day mortality
N% (95% CI)Months (95% CI)% (95% CI)
Overall 2516 45.3 (43.2, 47.3) 16.0 (14.9, 17.3) 5.9 (5.0, 6.8) 
IC w/ara-C 1171 60.6 (57.8, 63.4) 36.4 (31.0, 46.0) 1.6 (0.9, 2.3) 
HMA+ ven 300 33.7 (28.3, 39.3) 13.5 (11.4, 15.5) 3 (1.1, 4.9) 
Decitabine 242 12.8 (8.9, 17.7) 8.4 (6.7, 9.9) 10.4 (6.5, 14.2) 
Azacitidine 206 7.8 (4.5, 12.3) 7.2 (5.3, 9.6) 10.7 (6.4, 14.8) 
Investigational 206 61.6 (54.6, 68.3) 21.3 (15.2, 27.8) 3.4 (0.9, 5.9) 
Lower dose cytarabine 62 12.9 (5.7, 23.9) 8.7 (5.4, 16.1) 14.9 (5.4, 23.4) 
CPX-351 based 61 55.7 (42.4, 68.5) 9.3 (7.3, 15.1) 0.0 
No treatment 188 NA 1.9 (1.5, 2.8) 30 (22.7, 36.6) 
rwCR rateMedian rwOS30-day mortality
N% (95% CI)Months (95% CI)% (95% CI)
Overall 2516 45.3 (43.2, 47.3) 16.0 (14.9, 17.3) 5.9 (5.0, 6.8) 
IC w/ara-C 1171 60.6 (57.8, 63.4) 36.4 (31.0, 46.0) 1.6 (0.9, 2.3) 
HMA+ ven 300 33.7 (28.3, 39.3) 13.5 (11.4, 15.5) 3 (1.1, 4.9) 
Decitabine 242 12.8 (8.9, 17.7) 8.4 (6.7, 9.9) 10.4 (6.5, 14.2) 
Azacitidine 206 7.8 (4.5, 12.3) 7.2 (5.3, 9.6) 10.7 (6.4, 14.8) 
Investigational 206 61.6 (54.6, 68.3) 21.3 (15.2, 27.8) 3.4 (0.9, 5.9) 
Lower dose cytarabine 62 12.9 (5.7, 23.9) 8.7 (5.4, 16.1) 14.9 (5.4, 23.4) 
CPX-351 based 61 55.7 (42.4, 68.5) 9.3 (7.3, 15.1) 0.0 
No treatment 188 NA 1.9 (1.5, 2.8) 30 (22.7, 36.6) 

Citation Format: Elizabeth D. Pulte, Laura L. Fernandes, Joseph Wynne, Eric Hansen, Andrew J. Belli, Anna Barcellos, Christina M. Zettler, Rebecca Bystrom, Jonathon Vallejo, Wenjuan Gu, Catherine Lerro, Kelly Norsworthy, Angelo DeClaro, Marc R. Theoret, Donna Rivera, Ching-Kun Wang. Real world outcomes among patients with newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukemia [abstract]. In: Proceedings of the American Association for Cancer Research Annual Meeting 2024; Part 1 (Regular Abstracts); 2024 Apr 5-10; San Diego, CA. Philadelphia (PA): AACR; Cancer Res 2024;84(6_Suppl):Abstract nr 3821.