The pioneering design of chimeric antigen receptor T-cell (CAR-T) therapy demonstrated the potential of reprogramming the immune system. Nonetheless, T-cell exhaustion, toxicity, and suppressive microenvironment limit their efficacy in solid tumors. Recently, we characterized a novel subset of tumor-infiltrating CD4+ T-cells expressing the FcγRI receptor (Rasoulouniriana et al, 2019). Herein we detail the engineering of a novel receptor, based on the FcγRI structure, which is retrovirally transduced into PBMCs (both CD4 and CD8 T-cells). These cells, named SolidT cells, can target tumor cells using antibody intermediates. They show effective and specific cytotoxicity only when an appropriate antibody is added. Only target-bound antibodies activate these cells, while free antibodies are internalized without activation. Their cytotoxic activity is correlated to target protein density, therefore targeting tumor cells with high antigen density while sparing normal cells with low or no expression. This activation mechanism prevents premature exhaustion. Furthermore, during ADCC these cells secrete attenuated cytokine levels compared to CAR-T, thereby enhancing their safety profile. These cells eradicate established melanoma tumors, infiltrate the tumor microenvironment and facilitate host immune cell recruitment in immunocompetent mice. In NSG mice, they infiltrate, persist, and eradicate tumors. As opposed to CAR therapies, which require changing the receptor across different types of cancer, our engineered T-cells remain the same throughout tumor types, while only the injected antibody changes. As such, can be adapted to treat a wide range of solid cancers without changing the manufacturing program. Overall, SolidT cells are capable of binding tumor cells with high affinity, while preserving the cytotoxic specificity only to cells expressing a high density of tumor-associated antigens.

Citation Format: Diana Rasoulouniriana, Nadine Santana-Magal, Amit Gutwillig, Leen Farhat-Younis, Hana Shpilt, Shahar Dotan, Noam Pilpel, Peleg Rider, Yaron Carmi. A modified FcγRI expressing-T cell, SolidT, enables antibody-mediated cytotoxicity to overcome the limitations of CAR-T cell therapy against solid tumors. [abstract]. In: Proceedings of the American Association for Cancer Research Annual Meeting 2023; Part 1 (Regular and Invited Abstracts); 2023 Apr 14-19; Orlando, FL. Philadelphia (PA): AACR; Cancer Res 2023;83(7_Suppl):Abstract nr 4075.