Background: The ATEMPT trial primary analysis found that one year of adjuvant trastuzumab emtansine (T-DM1) achieved a 3-year iDFS of 97.8% for patients with stage I HER2+ breast cancer, but was not associated with fewer clinically relevant toxicities (CRTs) compared with paclitaxel and trastuzumab (TH). In this end-of-study analysis, we report 5-year survival outcomes and correlative analyses from the trial. Methods: Patients with stage I centrally confirmed HER2+ breast cancer were randomly assigned 3:1 to adjuvant T-DM1 for one year or TH and received T-DM1 3.6 mg/kg IV every 3 weeks for 17 cycles or paclitaxel 80 mg/m2 IV with weekly trastuzumab IV followed by trastuzumab for 9 months. The co-primary objectives were to compare the incidence of CRTs between the 2 arms and to evaluate iDFS in patients receiving T-DM1. To investigate proteomic correlates of recurrence, spatial proteomic analyses were performed on samples from 13 patients experiencing iDFS events (cases) and 24 matched controls using the NanoString GeoMx Digital Spatial Profiler. The impact of HER2 heterogeneity on outcomes was investigated among 17 cases and 51 matched controls by fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH). HER2 genetic heterogeneity was assessed by scrutinizing the whole tumor area and defined as the occurrence of HER2 gene amplification in >5% but < 50% invasive tumor cells. The risk of recurrence was evaluated centrally with the HER2DX genomic assay from 225 primary tumor samples. Germline whole genome sequencing (WGS) was conducted among 55 patients experiencing T-DM1-induced thrombocytopenia and/or bleeding and 55 matched controls to identify genomic correlates for this side effect. Results: A total of 497 patients who initiated protocol therapy were included in this analysis (383 T-DM1 and 114 TH). After a median follow up 5.8 years, among patients receiving T-DM1 there were a total of 11 iDFS events, with 3 distant recurrences. The 5-year iDFS for T-DM1 was 97.0% (95% CI, 95.3-98.8%), the 5-year recurrence-free interval (RFI) was 98.6% (95% CI: 97.4-99.8%) and the 5-year overall survival (OS) for T-DM1 was 97.8 % (95% CI, 96.3-99.3%). Although the study was not powered to evaluate the efficacy of TH, among the 114 patients receiving TH, a total of 9 iDFS events were observed, including 2 distant events; the 5-year iDFS with TH was 91.3% (95% CI: 86.0-96.9%), 5-year RFI was 93.3% (95% CI: 88.6-98.2%) and 5-year OS was 97.9% (95% CI: 95.2-100%). A total of 56 samples were evaluable for heterogeneity analyses, among which 14% (n=8) harbored HER2 genetic heterogeneity. Spatial proteomic analyses found that NF1 (adjusted p=0.72 × 10-6) and CTLA-4 (adjusted p=0.15 × 10-3) were significantly upregulated in primary samples from cases, while cleaved caspase 9, CD25, GITR, ICOS, p53 and PD-L2 were significantly upregulated in controls (all with adjusted p< 0.05). Germline WGS found that the top gene associations with thrombocytopenia and thrombocytopenia or bleeding were ALMS1 (p=0,19 × 10-3) and APBA3 (p=0,23 × 10-3), respectively, although none reaching the threshold for genome wide significance. rs62143195 and rs114169776 were the top single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with thrombocytopenia and thrombocytopenia or bleeding, respectively. Data on the impact of HER2 heterogeneity and of HER2DX score on survival outcomes will be presented. Conclusion: With longer follow-up, adjuvant T-DM1 confirmed outstanding long-term outcomes among patients with stage I HER2+ breast cancer, demonstrating a 5-year RFI of 98.6%. Spatial proteomic analyses identified a potential association between NF1 and CTLA-4 expression with recurrence. Details on the impact of HER2 heterogeneity and HER2DX assay on prognosis will be presented.

Citation Format: Paolo Tarantino, Nabihah Tayob, Chau T Dang, Denise Yardley, Steven J. Isakoff, Vicente Valero, Meredith Faggen, Therese Mulvey, Ron Bose, Douglas Weckstein, Antonio C. Wolff, Katherine Reeder-Hayes, Hope Rugo, Bhuvaneswari Ramaswamy, Dan Zuckerman, Lowell Hart, Vijayakrishna K. Gadi, Michael Constantine, Kit Cheng, Audrey Merrill Garrett, Paul K. Marcom, Kathy S. Albain, Patricia DeFusco, Nadine Tung, Blair Ardman, Rita Nanda, Rachel C. Jankowitz, Mothaffar Rimawi, Vandana Abramson, Paula R. Pohlmann, Catherine Van Poznak, Andres Forero-Torres, Minetta C. Liu, Kathryn Ruddy, Yue Zheng, Romualdo Barroso-Sousa, Adrienne Waks, Michelle K. DeMeo, Molly K. DiLullo, Giuseppe Curigliano, Harold Burstein, Ann Partridge, Eric Winer, Giuseppe Viale, Winnie Hui, Elizabeth A. Mittendorf, Bryan P. Schneider, Aleix Prat, Ian Krop, Sara Tolaney. Adjuvant Trastuzumab Emtansine Versus Paclitaxel plus Trastuzumab for Stage I HER2+ Breast Cancer: 5-year results and correlative analyses from ATEMPT (TBCRC033) [abstract]. In: Proceedings of the 2022 San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium; 2022 Dec 6-10; San Antonio, TX. Philadelphia (PA): AACR; Cancer Res 2023;83(5 Suppl):Abstract nr PD18-01.