Background PARP inhibitors have proven efficacy in breast cancer patients with germline BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations (gBRCAmt) but also have potential to be effective in cancers with defects in homologous recombination (HR) DNA repair. Moreover, synergy between PARP inhibition and immune checkpoint blockade is expected based on increased mutation burden, neoantigen expression, and immunogenic cell death. Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) or low estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancers may have diverse defects in HR repair. Methods This is a window of opportunity, serial biopsy trial of olaparib and durvalumab before standard neoadjuvant chemotherapy for TNBC or low ER+ breast cancer (NCT03594396). Patients had clinical stage II/III TNBC or low ER+ HER2- breast cancers where ER was expressed in 10% or lower in tumor cells. Olaparib 300mg bid was given for 4 weeks without rest. One dose of durvalumab 1500mg was given on day 15. Study tumor biopsy and blood sample were taken before the study treatment, after 2 weeks of olaparib before durvalumab, and 2 weeks after durvalumab at the completion of 4 weeks of olaparib. FDG-PET/MRI was taken at baseline, after 2 weeks, after 4 weeks of study treatment, and computed tomography (CT) scan at baseline and after 4 weeks. After the study treatment, standard neoadjuvant chemotherapy with 4 cycles of doxorubicin+cyclophosphamide followed by 4 cycles of docetaxel was given. Primary endpoint was the changes of tumor biology detected by serial tumor biopsy. Secondary endpoints were pathological complete response (pCR) rate, response rate, prediction of early metabolic response by functional HR status, and safety. Functional HR deficiency was assessed by counting RAD51 foci as a marker for HR repair in the baseline tumor tissues before and after 30Gy irradiation to induce DNA damage. Results Fifty-four female patients were enrolled (median age 40 years, range 24-68). ER was negative (TNBC) in 43 patients and low-positive in 11 patients. Clinical stage was II in 25 patients and III in 29 patients, and axillary lymph node involvement was in 47 patients. gBRCAmt was assessed in 53 patients and 16 (30.1%) harbored pathogenic mutations. Functional HR status as measured by RAD51 foci formation was deficient in 27 (50%) patients and proficient in 27 (50%) patients. Functional HR deficiency was related with early metabolic response by FDG-PET after 2 weeks of olaparib (response in 17/27 HR-deficient tumors [63.0%] vs. 7/27 HR-proficient tumors [25.9%]; p=.006). After 4 weeks of olaparib and durvalumab, HR-deficiency was still related to metabolic response (23/27 vs. 17/27, respectively; p=.062) but HR-proficient tumors also showed metabolic decline. Moreover, HR deficiency was also related with RECIST response measured by CT after 4 weeks (17/27 vs. 9/27; p=.029). As of June 2021, 40 patients completed the neoadjuvant treatment and surgery; among those, 30 achieved pCR (pCR rate 75%). Among 13 patients with gBRCAmt who underwent surgery, 11 achieved pCR (84.6%). Updated results on pCR will be presented. Conclusions Olaparib and durvalumab followed by standard neoadjuvant chemotherapy shows very high pCR rate in TNBC or low ER+ stage II/III breast cancer. Functional HR status as measured by RAD51 foci formation was predictive of early metabolic response to olaparib. Genomic and transcriptomic analyses are underway in the samples before, during, and after olaparib and durvalumab.

Citation Format: Seock-Ah Im, Kyung-Hun Lee, Ahrum Min, Daewon Lee, Tae Yong Kim, Han Suk Ryu, Jiwon Koh, Gi-Jeong Cheon, Yoon-Jung Shin, Yujin Kim, Hyeong-Gon Moon, Wonshik Han, Han-Byoel Lee, Morgan Diolaiti, David Quigley, Alan Ashworth, Nariya Cho. Window of opportunity trial of neoadjuvant olaparib and durvalumab for triple negative or low ER-positive breast cancer [abstract]. In: Proceedings of the 2021 San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium; 2021 Dec 7-10; San Antonio, TX. Philadelphia (PA): AACR; Cancer Res 2022;82(4 Suppl):Abstract nr PD15-08.