Background: Cyclin dependent 4/6 kinase inhibitors (CDK4/6i) and endocrine therapy (ET) have improved progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival in HR+ MBC, but progression of disease ultimately occurs. Apart from HR+ status, there are no clinically available biomarkers that enable oncologists to determine prognosis and predict response to CDK4/6i. An emerging biomarker is serum thymidine kinase 1 (TK1), a secreted marker of proliferation that is prognostic in pts with HR+ HER2- MBC. High levels of TKa are associated with inferior PFS, whereas pts with low TKa levels pretreatment, or TKa levels that decrease on ET and a CDK4/6i, have superior PFS. Notably, TKa levels rebound ≥ 5 days off Pb, with resumption of cell cycling. PROMISE (NCT0281902) is a prospective study that enrolled women with HR+ MBC starting Pb + letrozole (L) in the 1st line [FL] or Pb + fulvestrant in the 2nd line [SL] setting. The trial includes a comprehensive “omic” assessment of blood, tumor, urine and the fecal microbiome to identify novel genomic variants and pathways associated with an early decline in TKa (measured after 2 months or end of cycle [C]2) and PFS. Here, we report the association between i) pre-treatment TKa (pre-TKa) levels and PFS (i.e. from registration to the 1st disease event) and ii) TKa levels at the end of C2 (C2-TKa) and PFS-2 (i.e. from the start of C3 to the 1st disease event).Methods: TKa testing was performed using the DiviTum assay (Biovica). TKa+ disease was defined as ≥ 200 Du/L and TKa- disease as below limit of detection to 200 Du/L. Log-rank test and univariate Cox modeling were used to assess the association between pre-TKa levels and PFS and between end of C2-TKa levels and PFS-2. The database was locked on June 28, 2021. Results: Of 68 pts enrolled, 4 were ineligible and pre-TKa data was unavailable for 4. Of the remaining 60 pts (45 FL, 15 SL), the percentage of pts with pre-TKa+ disease was 33.3% in FL (15/45, 95% CI: 20.0-49.0%), and 46.7% (7/15, 95% CI: 21.4-71.9%) in the SL. The median follow-up time for pts on study was 24 months (range: 2-42 months). There were 22 disease events (13 in FL, 9 in SL). In the FL setting, PFS was significantly shorter for preTKa+ pts compared to preTKa- pts (HR: 4.15, 95% CI:1.35-12.74; p=0.007), but not for SL pts (HR: 1.11, 95% CI: 0.30-4.18, p=0.875). End of C2 TKa data was obtained for pts while on Pb (n=5), or after stopping Pb as follows: 1-4 days (n=9), 5-8 days (n=28) and 9-36 days (n=11). PFS-2 was not associated with C2-TKa in the FL (p=0.834) or SL (p=0.454) settings. An analysis of TKa levels by metastatic site will be presented at the meeting.Conclusions: A secreted biomarker of proliferation (TK1) obtained prior to initiating CDK4/6i and ET for the treatment of HR+ MBC is associated with PFS in pts receiving 1st line Pb + L, but not in those receiving 2nd line Pb + fulvestrant. While the end of C2 TKa levels were not associated with PFS, the interpretability of these data are limited, given treatment delays (0-36 days) prior to starting C3 that may result in TKa rebound. Future studies evaluating the predictive nature of TKa and Pb response should focus on earlier timepoints while on drug.

Citation Format: Ciara C O'Sullivan, Jun He, Jason Sinnwell, Vera J Suman, Krishna R Kalari, Peter T Vedell, Ann M Moyer, Xiaojia Tang, Kevin J Thompson, Abe Eyman Casey, Alvaro Moreno-Aspitia, Donald W Northfelt, Minetta C Liu, Tufia C Haddad, Saranya Chumsri, Brendan McMenomy, Prema Peethambaram, Kathryn J Ruddy, Karthik V Giridhar, Roberto A Leon-Ferre, Mattias Bergqvist, Adrian Nordmark, Richard M Weinshilboum, Liewei Wang, Matthew P Goetz. Serum thymidine kinase 1 activity (TKa) levels and progression-free survival (PFS) in patients (pts) with hormone receptor positive (HR+) HER2-negative metastatic breast cancer (MBC) on palbociclib (Pb) and endocrine therapy (ET) [abstract]. In: Proceedings of the 2021 San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium; 2021 Dec 7-10; San Antonio, TX. Philadelphia (PA): AACR; Cancer Res 2022;82(4 Suppl):Abstract nr P5-13-22.