Background: Membrane HER2 expression levels strongly influence the activity of anti-HER2 therapies directed at the HER2 extracellular domain (1,2). Tumoral cell-surface caveolin-1 (CAV-1) regulates receptor tyrosine kinase membrane trafficking mechanisms (1,3). In xenograft models, CAV-1 can be modulated with cholesterol-depleting drugs, such as statins. We hypothesized that preclinical and clinical use of statins might influence the expression of CAV-1 and thereby affect the efficacy of anti-HER2 antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) in breast cancer. Methods: Preclinically, statins were given alone and in combination with HER2 antibody drug conjugates such as T-DM1 to assess HER2 levels, drug uptake, and antitumor efficacy in HER2-positive cancer models. Mice received an intravenous injection of T-DM1, oral doses of lovastatin, or a combination of T-DM1 and lovastatin, for 5 weeks. Clinically, we performed retrospective analyses of HER2-positive MBC patients at MSKCC who received T-DM1 and consented to molecular profiling and clinical data abstraction. Progression-free survival (PFS) on T-DM1 was estimated using Kaplan Meyer methods and compared using the log rank test. Univariable and multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were constructed using relevant clinical covariates. Results: Tumor models with high levels of CAV-1 exhibit low HER2 density on the cell surface and show low T-DM1 targeted immunoPET binding when compared with CAV-1-low tumors. Mechanistic studies showed that CAV-1 depletion in HER2-positive BC cells temporally stabilizes HER2 on the surface and delays T-DM1 recycling. In preclinical BC models, CAV-1 depletion induced by synthetic oligonucleotides or statins enhances T-DM1 binding and efficacy in tumors with incomplete HER2 membranous reactivity. For clinical analyses, a total of 164 patients who received T-DM1 were included in the final analysis. Twenty-one (12.8%) of these patients were recorded to be taking statins concurrently with T-DM1, as part of their routine clinical care. Compared with patients with no recorded statin use, patients receiving statins were older on average (median age 58 vs. 50 years, p = 0.007), but did not differ in their race, histologic breast cancer type, ER status, or T-DM1 treatment line. Median PFS on T-DM1 in the overall cohort was 5.5 months. Median PFS in patients who received statins was 14 months vs. 5.4 months in patients who had no recorded statin use (p = 0.1). In univariable Cox analysis, the association between statin use and PFS did not reach statistical significance (p=0.119). In a multivariable analysis including age, ER status, treatment line, and breast cancer histology, no variable reached statistical significance. However, statin use had the greatest observed degree of association with PFS (p = 0.17). Conclusions: Statins modulate surface HER2 levels and T-DM1 efficacy preclinically via CAV-1. Although only a numerical difference in outcomes was observed in the MSKCC cohort, the effect appeared meaningful and therefore assessment in larger patient cohorts is now underway. Based on the results of these forthcoming analyses, prospective trials may be justified that integrate these well-tolerated and low-cost agents into HER2 ADC treatment regimens. References:1-Pereira P. et al Nat Commun 9, 5137 (2018)2-Chew H.Y. et al Cell 180, 895 (2020)3-Pereira P. et al Clin Cancer Res 26, 6215 (2020)

Citation Format: Joshua Z Drago, Patricia R Pereira, Anton Safonov, Antonio Marra, Yi Rao, Bo Liu, Mehnaj Ahmed, Shanu Modi, Jorge Reis-Filho, Mark Robson, Filippo Montemurro, Pedram Razavi, Jason S Lewis, Sarat Chandarlapaty. Statin modulation of antibody drug conjugate activity in breast cancer models and patients [abstract]. In: Proceedings of the 2021 San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium; 2021 Dec 7-10; San Antonio, TX. Philadelphia (PA): AACR; Cancer Res 2022;82(4 Suppl):Abstract nr P2-13-19.