Single cell technologies and spatial analyses are emerging as powerful tools to investigate tumor heterogeneity, cell state of key effector or suppressing immune cells and detailed distribution of cells within the tumor microenvironment. Their application will undoubtedly provide further understanding of the effects of cancer immunotherapy on the tumor microenvironment, which is particularly important for the largely non-immunogenic breast carcinomas. However, analyses of clinical samples require well-coordinated, multidisciplinary teams and specific expertise. Moreover, large scale analyses have major technical challenges and is still relatively costly. We will discuss the promise and hurdles of single cell and spatial analyses on the road to find biomarker for breast cancer immunotherapy and avenues for novel immunomodulatory treatments for breast cancer patients.

Citation Format: M Kok. Optimizing immunotherapy efficacy in the clinic through biomarkers: Advances in single cell and spatial histology analyse [abstract]. In: Proceedings of the 2021 San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium; 2021 Dec 7-10; San Antonio, TX. Philadelphia (PA): AACR; Cancer Res 2022;82(4 Suppl):Abstract nr ES11-3.