Pediatric diffuse high-grade gliomas (HGGs) are a heterogeneous spectrum of disease with abysmal survival rates. Approximately half of diffuse high-grade gliomas in children arise in midline structures predominantly the brainstem, but also thalamus, cerebellum and spinal cord. Approximately 80% of these tumors harbor H3 K27M mutations, which result in dramatic depletion of the post-translational modification H3K27me3. Alternative mutations in diffuse midline gliomas can result in similar reduction of H3K27me3, leading to a redefined classification of this collection of tumors as diffuse midline glioma, H3 K27-altered. In contrast, distinct histone H3 mutations, H3.3 G34R/V, are found in approximately 30% of diffuse gliomas arising in the cerebral hemispheres of older adolescents and young adults, defining the tumor subgroup of diffuse hemispheric glioma, H3 G34-mutant. The striking spatiotemporal pattern of these histone mutations, termed oncohistones, indicates an intimate association between epigenetic dysregulation, brain development, and tumorigenesis. We will discuss use of genetically engineered and patient-derived models to investigate the contribution of oncohistone mutations to disrupted development, epigenetic dysregulation and gliomagenesis.

Citation Format: Kaitlin Budd, Chang-Hyuk Kwon, Lawryn H. Kasper, Christopher Roberts, Jordan Roach, Jennifer Ocasio-Adorno, Jon D. Larson, Suzanne J. Baker. Transforming chromatin: Oncohistone mutations in pediatric high-grade glioma. [abstract]. In: Proceedings of the AACR Special Conference: Cancer Epigenomics; 2022 Oct 6-8; Washington, DC. Philadelphia (PA): AACR; Cancer Res 2022;82(23 Suppl_2):Abstract nr IA007.