Introduction: CD37 has shown promise as a new therapeutic target for B-cell malignancies. CD37 is highly and selectively expressed on the surface of mature B lymphocytes and B-cell malignancies. Alpha-emitting radionuclides have demonstrated potential for cancer targeted therapies because of efficient energy deposition along the short alpha track (50-100 µm) causing localized and irreparable DNA damage while sparing surrounding healthy tissues. We have developed a targeted alpha therapy (TAT) where the CD37-specific antibody NNV003 is coupled to the alpha-particle-generating radioisotope 212Pb for the treatment of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Approximately 90,000 cases of CLL and NHL are expected annually in the US. Standard of care includes chemotherapy combined with anti-CD20 antibodies (obinutuzumab and rituximab) and Bruton’s tyrosine kinase inhibitor ibrutinib. While these therapies are initially effective, most patients inevitably relapse.
Materials and methods: The efficacy and tolerability of a single dose 212Pb-NNV003 treatment were evaluated in disseminated models using CD37-expressing human CLL (MEC-2) and Burkitt’s lymphoma (Daudi) cells. Comparison to therapeutic doses of ibrutinib was investigated in the MEC-2 model. R2G2 or CB17-SCID mice were injected intravenously with 2.5×106 MEC-2 or 10×106 Daudi cells on day 0, followed by intravenous injection of 212Pb-NNV003 (2.5, 5 or 7.5 µCi in Daudi model and 5, 10, 15 or 20 µCi in MEC-2 model) or daily oral administration of ibrutinib (12.5 or 25 mg/kg) starting on day 2 (n=10-12 per group). 212Pb-cetuximab (unspecific isotype control), unlabelled NNV003 and NaCl were used as controls.
Results: In vitro testing of the antibody showed that MEC-2 cells were 5 times more resistant to ibrutinib than Daudi cells. Treatment of mice injected intravenously with Daudi cells with 2.5 μCi 212Pb-NNV003 resulted in survival of 100% of the mice 100 days after start of treatment, while 100 days after start of treatment with 100 μg obinutuzumab only 40% of the mice were still alive. Control mice had a median survival of 7-8 weeks. Treatment of mice injected intravenously with MEC-2 cells with 15 μCi 212Pb-NNV003 resulted in survival of 90-100% for more than 25 weeks in two independent experiments. Ibrutinib treated mice with intravenous MEC-2 cells presented a median survival of only 4.3-4.4 weeks, comparable to the unlabelled NNV003 and saline groups (4.1 and 4.4 weeks). Mice receiving non-specific 212Pb-cetuximab presented a median survival of 7-9 weeks.
Conclusion: The study shows that a single injection 212Pb-NNV003 is safe and effective for the treatment of CD37 positive CLL and NHL in preclinical models, with promising efficacy in both ibrutinib-resistant and sensitive CLL models. Treatment with 212Pb-NNV003 was superior to both ibrutinib and obinutuzumab. Further clinical testing is warranted.
Citation Format: Jostein Dahle, Amal Saidi, Tania Stallons, Helen Heyerdahl, Ada Repetto-Llamazares, Julien Torgue. Targeted alpha therapy with 212Pb-NNV003 in treatment of NHL [abstract]. In: Proceedings of the American Association for Cancer Research Annual Meeting 2022; 2022 Apr 8-13. Philadelphia (PA): AACR; Cancer Res 2022;82(12_Suppl):Abstract nr 5432.