Introduction: Intraoperative radiation therapy (IORT) is a convenient treatment option for appropriate women with early stage breast cancer. Some patients undergoing IORT also need adjuvant whole breast radiation therapy due to adverse final pathologic features. Although there are various reports of the complication rates with patients undergoing IORT, comparisons with patients undergoing other forms of radiation therapy such as whole breast or accelerated partial breast radiation are sparse. Methods: A total of 293 patients underwent breast conserving surgery at the study institution between January 2016 and December 2019 for either ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) or invasive breast cancer. Three patients had bilateral breast cancer and one patient had a local recurrence having refused adjuvant treatment following breast conserving surgery, for a total of 297 treated breasts. 124 received whole breast radiation therapy, 70 did not receive radiation therapy, 47 received IORT alone, 15 received IORT and whole breast radiation therapy, 30 received accelerated partial breast radiation using external beam radiation (APBI-EB), and 9 received Ir-192 based high dose rate accelerated partial breast radiation (APBI-HDR). One patient with bilateral breast cancer did not complete whole breast radiation therapy to either breast. Complications included cellulitis, wound drainage, symptomatic seroma, delayed wound healing, and wet desquamation. Interventions included observation, antibiotics, wound packing, debridement, fluid aspiration, hydrogel dressings, and wound vacuums. Results: For the entire group, the incidence of wound complications was 20%. The risk of complications was 27.4% for those undergoing IORT (with or without whole breast radiation) compared to 18.3% for those not receiving IORT, which was not statistically different at the 5% significance level. For those who received both IORT and whole breast radiation, however, the proportion having complication was 53.3% versus 18.4% in the other groups. The difference was significant with a p-value 0.0032. Conclusion: Patients who undergo both IORT and whole breast radiation have an increased risk for wound complications.

Citation Format: James Wheeler, Houman Vaghefi, Laura Morris, Fang Liu, Irina Sparks, Fiona Denham, Leonard Henry, Ashley Hardy, Meghan Schrock, Vanessa DePue, Leon Coody. Breast complications in patients who received intraoperative radiation therapy compared to other forms of radiation therapy following breast conserving surgery [abstract]. In: Proceedings of the 2020 San Antonio Breast Cancer Virtual Symposium; 2020 Dec 8-11; San Antonio, TX. Philadelphia (PA): AACR; Cancer Res 2021;81(4 Suppl):Abstract nr PS15-03.