Background: Ki67 values >10% 2-4 weeks (wks) after starting neoadjuvant ET (NET) indicates persistent cell proliferation, resistance to ET, and is associated with increased risk of recurrence. The ACOSOG Z1031 trial suggested that these tumors are also relatively chemotherapy (chemo) resistant with a low pathologic complete response (pCR) rate to NCT. The ALTERNATE trial (NCT01953588) is a randomized study of neoadjuvant anastrozole (ANA), fulvestrant (FUL), or ANA + FUL in postmenopausal patients (pt) with newly diagnosed clinical stage II or III ER+ (Allred score 6-8)/HER2- BC. Ki67 >10% at wk 4 or 12 after starting NET triggered triage to NCT of physician choice or weekly paclitaxel. Pts who refused protocol-directed therapy, were not candidates for NCT, or decided to undergo immediate surgery are being followed per protocol. Here we report the rates of pCR and residual cancer burden (RCB) following NCT for pts triaged to NCT due to Ki67 >10% at wk 4 or 12. Results: Of the 1,299 eligible pts randomized to receive ANA, FUL, or ANA + FUL, 286 (22%) had Ki67 >10% at wk 4 or 12. 168 of these 286 pts (58.7%) chose to switch to NCT, 32 went to surgery (11.2%), and 86 discontinued further protocol-directed therapy (30.1%). Among the 168 pts who underwent NCT, the presenting clinical T stages were cT2 (n=113; 67.26%), cT3 (n=47; 27.98%) and cT4 (n=8; 4.76%) and N stages were cN0 (n=82; 48.8%), cN1 (n=75; 44.6%), cN2/3 (n=9; 5.4%) and cNx (n=2; 1.2%). Central ER testing was performed on pre-treatment biopsies and confirmed ER Allred score 6-8 in 155 of 168 (92.2%) pts, with the rest being ER Allred score 4-5 (n=5; 3%), ER- (Allred score 0) (n=2; 1.2%), or not tested (n=6; 3.6%). Most (n=139; 82.7%) were ER+/PR+, while 17.3% (n=29) were ER+/PR-, and tumor grades were G1 (n=10; 6%), G2 (n=99; 58.9%), G3 (n=54; 32.1%), not reported (n=5; 3%). Baseline Ki67 levels prior to NET were >10% in 94% (n=158), ≤10% in 3% (n=5), and not done in 3% (n=5). NCT regimens administered included doxorubicin/cyclophosphamide (AC) followed by paclitaxel (T) (n=60; 35.71%); weekly paclitaxel (n=56; 33.33%), docetaxel/cyclophosphamide (TC) (n=33; 19.65%), other doxorubicin and/or taxane containing regimen (n=17; 10.12%), and cyclophosphamide/methotrexate/fluorouracil (CMF) (n=2; 1.19%). 35 (20.8%) pts did not complete planned course of NCT due to toxicity (n=27) or refusal (n=8). 154 NCT pts underwent surgery (mastectomy in 40.3%, and breast conserving surgery in 59.7%). The path ypT stages were Tis/0 (n=10; 6.5%), T1 (n=62; 40.3%), T2 (n=61; 39.6%), and T3/4 (n=21; 13.6%), and the ypN stages were N0 (n=66; 42.9%), N1 (n=57; 37%), N2/3 (n=30; 19.5%), and Nx (n=1; 0.6%). Among the 168 pts who started on NCT (intent to treat population), there were 8 pCRs (no invasive disease in the breast or lymph nodes) (4.8%; 95% CI: 2.1% to 9.2%). Residual Cancer Burden (RCB) categories include RCB 0 (n=8; 4.8%), RCB 1 (n=15; 8.9%), RCB 2 (n=82; 48.8%), RCB 3 (n=42; 25.0%), and not determined (n=21; 12.5%). Correlations of baseline pt and tumor characteristics with pathology response to NCT will also be presented. Conclusion: In pts with NET-resistant ER+/HER2- BC, salvage NCT is not likely to induce a complete or near complete response. More effective treatments are needed for this high-risk ER+/HER2- pt population. Support: U10CA180821, U10CA180882, U24CA196171, UG1CA189856, U10CA180868 (NRG); NCI BIQSFP, BCRF, Genentech, AstraZeneca. https://acknowledgments.alliancefound.org. Clinical Trials.gov Identifier: NCT01953588
Citation Format: Cynthia X Ma, Vera Suman, A. Marilyn Leitch, Souzan Sanati, Kiran Vij, Gary W Unzeitig, Jeremy Hoog, Mark Watson, Olwen Hahn, Joseph Guenther, Abigail Caudle, Erika Crouch, Horacio Maluf, Amy Tiersten, Monica Mita, Wajeeha Razaq, Tina J Hieken, Yang Wang, Travis Dockter, Jo Anne Zujewski, Anna Weiss, Kelly Hunt, Clifford Hudis, Eric P Winer, Matthew J Ellis, Lisa A Carey, Ann H Partridge. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NCT) response in postmenopausal women with clinical stage II or III estrogen receptor positive (ER+) and HER2 negative (HER2-) breast cancer (BC) resistant to endocrine therapy (ET) in the ALTERNATE trial (Alliance A011106) [abstract]. In: Proceedings of the 2020 San Antonio Breast Cancer Virtual Symposium; 2020 Dec 8-11; San Antonio, TX. Philadelphia (PA): AACR; Cancer Res 2021;81(4 Suppl):Abstract nr GS4-05.