Background: Complete surgical resection is the standard treatment for patients with stage I-IIIA non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Five-year survival rates range from 19% to 50%, with most patients dying from distant recurrence. Neoadjuvant or adjuvant chemotherapy improves overall survival (OS) by only 5% in patients with NSCLC, and new treatment options are needed. Preliminary data for PD1 or PD-L1 inhibitors as neoadjuvant therapy have shown major pathologic responses (MPRs) or pathologic complete responses (pCRs) in patients with early-stage NSCLC. The CANTOS study demonstrated reduced incidence of NSCLC and decreased lung cancer-related mortality with canakinumab (interleukin 1β inhibitor) versus placebo, in a dose-dependent manner for patients with atherosclerosis. In preclinical NSCLC humanized models, treatment with canakinumab ± anti-PD-1 inhibitor could lead to antitumor activity. Combination of canakinumab and pembrolizumab is expected to enhance the efficacy of PD-1 inhibition by inhibiting dysregulated inflammation in the tumor microenvironment. Based on available evidence, the CANOPY-N study was designed to evaluate the effect of canakinumab and pembrolizumab as monotherapy or in combination as neoadjuvant treatment for patients with resectable NSCLC. Methods: CANOPY-N (NCT03968419) is a Phase II, randomized, open-label study evaluating the effect of canakinumab and pembrolizumab as monotherapy or in combination as neoadjuvant treatment in patients with resectable NSCLC. Patients with histologically confirmed stage IB-IIIA NSCLC (excluding N2 and T4 tumors), no prior systemic therapy, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status 0 or 1, and eligibility for surgery and with a planned surgical resection in approximately 4-6 weeks (after first dose of study treatment) are eligible to participate. An archival (if obtained up to 6 months before first day of treatment) or new biopsy is required. Approximately 110 patients will be randomized in a 2:2:1 ratio (stratified by histology [squamous/nonsquamous]) to one of the treatment arms to receive a total of 2 doses (200 mg every 3 weeks) of canakinumab alone (n=44) or in combination with pembrolizumab (n=44) or pembrolizumab alone (n=22), with safety follow-up up to 130 days from last study drug dose. The primary endpoint is MPR rate (≤10% of residual viable tumor cells at time of surgery), and secondary endpoints include determination of overall response rate, MPR rate based on local review, surgical feasibility rates, incidence of antidrug antibodies, and pharmacokinetic parameters. As of October 19, 2020, there are 36 active study locations.

Citation Format: Jay M. Lee, Tony Mok, Pilar Garrido, Edward S. Kim, Çağatay Arslan, Masahiro Tsuboi, Tuochuan Dong, Cecile Blin, Vanessa Rodrik-Outmezguine, Bijoyesh Mookerjee, Vanessa Passos, Jean-Louis Pujol. Canakinumab or pembrolizumab as monotherapy or in combination as neoadjuvant therapy in patients with surgically resected non-small cell lung cancer: CANOPY-N trial [abstract]. In: Proceedings of the American Association for Cancer Research Annual Meeting 2021; 2021 Apr 10-15 and May 17-21. Philadelphia (PA): AACR; Cancer Res 2021;81(13_Suppl):Abstract nr CT237.