Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a lethal malignancy with few known risk factors and biomarkers. Identification of biomarkers is critical for understanding the pathogenesis of this deadly cancer and identifying high-risk individuals for close surveillance. Several blood protein biomarkers have been linked to PDAC in previous studies, but these studies have assessed only a limited number of protein biomarkers usually in small set(s) of samples. To identify novel circulating protein biomarkers of PDAC, we studied 8,275 cases and 6,723 controls of European descent from the Pancreatic Cancer Cohort Consortium and the Pancreatic Cancer Case-Control Consortium.
Leveraging genome and plasma proteome data of 2,841 healthy European descendants included in the INTERVAL study, we established models using four methods (best linear unbiased predictor, elastic net, LASSO, and top1) to predict protein levels based on genetic variants. For each protein, of the four sets of models developed, the model showing the highest prediction performance (R2) was retained. We selected 2,164 built protein models with a prediction performance (R2) of >0.01 for association analyses with PDAC risk.
We observed associations between predicted concentrations of 14 proteins and PDAC risk at a false discovery rate of < 0.05, including those of eight proteins that showed a significant association after Bonferroni correction (2.31 × 10-5). These include Histo-blood group ABO system transferase encoded by ABO, which has been previously implicated as a potential target gene of PDAC risk variant identified in GWAS. Besides eight proteins that were previously reported in our earlier study using protein quantitative trait loci as instruments, we identified six novel proteins which have not been identified in previous studies. Six of the identified proteins showed positive associations and eight showed inverse associations (P-values from 2.62 × 10-4 to 5.71 × 10-21).
In conclusion, we identified 14 protein biomarker candidates for PDAC risk, which if validated in future studies, may contribute to the etiological understanding of PDAC development.
Citation Format: Dalia Ghoneim, Jingjing Zhu, Jihwan Ha, Praveen Surendran, Qizhi Cathy Yao, Tao Liu, Sarah Fahle, Adam Butterworth, Chong Wu, Lang Wu. Associations of genetically predicted blood protein biomarkers with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma risk: A study using comprehensive protein genetic prediction models [abstract]. In: Proceedings of the American Association for Cancer Research Annual Meeting 2021; 2021 Apr 10-15 and May 17-21. Philadelphia (PA): AACR; Cancer Res 2021;81(13_Suppl):Abstract nr 882.