Patient-derived xenografts provide a functional test system in a living organism, making them the leading assay for precision oncology and drug development. In vivo pharmacology studies are widely performed using subcutaneous implantation; however, due to significant changes in the tumor microenvironment, this methodology falls short of modeling the full complexities of human cancer. We use quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to report differences in growth kinetics and pharmacological response between orthotopic and subcutaneous implantation of patient-derived xenografts. We demonstrate that O-PDX models can predict effective treatment strategies for individual patients and forecast tumor recurrence after therapy. Furthermore, we use this approach to develop in vivo models of acquired drug resistance to strategize future treatment options and aid in drug development.

Citation Format: Jonathan Nakashima, Jantzen Sperry, Bianca Carapia, Deborah Yan, Angelina Chin, Aliakbar Shahsafaei, Joan Chen, Yuan-Hung Chien, Christophe Pedros, Noah Federman, Arun Singh, Fritz C. Eilber, Brian Datnow. Orthotopic patient-derived xenografts (O-PDX) are effective precision oncology models that can predict therapeutic response, recurrence, and acquired drug resistance [abstract]. In: Proceedings of the American Association for Cancer Research Annual Meeting 2021; 2021 Apr 10-15 and May 17-21. Philadelphia (PA): AACR; Cancer Res 2021;81(13_Suppl):Abstract nr 3013.