There is an unmet need for preclinical models of rare cancers and rare disease sub-types. The National Cancer Institute's Patient-Derived Models Repository (NCI PDMR; https://pdmr.cancer.gov) is developing quality-controlled, early-passage, clinically-annotated patient-derived tumor xenografts (PDXs), in vitro tumor cell cultures (PDCs), cancer associated fibroblasts (CAFs), and patient-derived organoids (PDOrg) and has focused on addressing unmet needs in the preclinical model space including developing models from adult and pediatric patients with rare cancers. To date, NCI has created and molecularly characterized over 150 preclinical models of rare cancer including indications such as Hurthle cell carcinoma, osteosarcomas, Merkel cell carcinomas, salivary gland cancers, synovial sarcomas, and carcinosarcomas. Rare cancer models developed to date will be reviewed and their histopathologic and molecular characteristics compared to that reported in the clinical setting. A pipeline to identify fusion proteins in these rare cancers such as the Ewing sarcoma EWSR1-FLI1 fusion and NAB2-STAT6 fusions in solitary fibrous tumors (SFT) has been implemented. Four malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNST) PDX models are available for researches; these models were developed from patients diagnosed between the ages of 37-68. At the time of model development, two patients were treatment naïve and two had prior radiotherapy. Two of the MPNST PDX models have NF1 oncogenic mutations, three have deep deletions in CDKN2A/B, and three have a mutation in either EED or SUZ12 consistent with the reported molecular characteristics of patients with MPNST. Also of clinical relevance, of two mesothelioma models available, one carries an NF2 driver mutation and the other BAP1 and LATS2 and a PDX model for Hurthle cell carcinoma has wide-spread loss of heterozygosity (LOH 80%). Models for other rare cancers are in development, including four cholangiocarcinoma PDXs with histopathologic confirmation that are currently being expanded for molecular characterization and distribution. Funded by NCI Contract No. HHSN261200800001E

Citation Format: Cindy R. Timme, Sergio Y. Alcoser, Devynn Breen, John Carter, Ting-Chia Chang, Alice Chen, Li Chen, Kristen Cooley, Biswajit Das, Emily Delaney, Michelle A. Eugeni, Michelle M. Gottholm-Ahalt, Tara Grinnage-Polley, Jenna Hull, Chris Karlovich, Kimberly Klarmann, Shahanawaz Jiwani, Candace Mallow, Chelsea McGlynn, Justine Mills, Malorie Morris, Michael Mullendore, Dianne Newton, Tia Shearer, Jesse Stottlemyer, Shannon Uzelac, Thomas Walsh, P. Mickey Williams, Yvonne A. Evrard, Melinda G. Hollingshead, James H. Doroshow. Patient-derived models of rare cancers in the National Cancer Institute's patient-derived models repository [abstract]. In: Proceedings of the American Association for Cancer Research Annual Meeting 2021; 2021 Apr 10-15 and May 17-21. Philadelphia (PA): AACR; Cancer Res 2021;81(13_Suppl):Abstract nr 3012.