T cells play a central role in cancer immunosurveillance and current cancer immunotherapies, including adoptive cell transfer (ACT), T cell receptor or chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell therapies and immune checkpoint blockade. Understanding the factors regulating T cell function is hence critical for improving the success of these immunotherapies. It has been recognized that metabolism can greatly affect different aspects of T cell function, including differentiation, cytokine production, longevity and exhaustion. Here we integrate genome-scale metabolic modeling (GEM) with biological experiments to discover novel metabolic determinants of T cell function. Previously we developed the metabolic transformation algorithm (MTA), a GEM method that was successfully applied to identify driving factors and targets for different diseases. Here applying MTA to data on CAR-T cell gene expression and patient response to anti-CD19 CAR-T therapy, we predicted mitochondrial metabolite transport and specifically proton transport in mitochondrial uncoupling, as key determinants of CAR-T therapy response. Mitochondrial uncoupling is also important for the in vivo persistence of adoptively transferred tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes, as further confirmed by analyzing their gene expressions from a KRAS-targeting ACT dataset. Focusing on the mitochondrial uncoupling protein 2 (Ucp2), which is abundantly expressed in T cells, we experimentally validated that it is required for T cell longevity and anti-tumor function. Specifically, the loss of Ucp2 either via knock-out (KO) or treatment by genipin (a Ucp2 inhibitor) in mice T cells results in accelerated differentiation into “terminal effector cells”, as shown by increased levels of T cell cytotoxicity and exhaustion markers, and decreased levels of central memory and stemness markers. Adoptive transfer of Ucp2-KO Pmel-1 T cells to mice bearing B16 melanomas displayed poorer anti-tumor efficacy and worse survival than the transfer of Ucp2-wildtype T cells. We find that Ucp2 modulates oxidative stress and DNA damage by regulating the levels of mitochondrial superoxide. Reducing mitochondrial reactive oxygen species was sufficient to rescue the loss of Ucp2-mediated effector T cell differentiation, senescence, cytokine production and anti-tumor activity Ucp2-KO Pmel-1 T cells. Tumor-specific CD8+ T cells could be metabolically reprogrammed by Ucp2 overexpression, which improved T cell longevity and anti-tumor function in the Pmel-1/B16 ACT mice model. In sum, our study establishes a novel role of Ucp2 in regulating T cell longevity and anti-tumor activity by repressing increased ROS levels accompanying mitochondrial dysfunction in differentiated and exhausted cells, suggesting that manipulating Ucp2 levels in T cells can be exploited to enhance T cell-based cancer immunotherapies.
Citation Format: Madhusudhanan Sukumar, Kuoyuan Cheng, Arunakumar Gangaplara, Yogin Patel, Suman K. Vodnala, Rafiqul Islam, Arash Eidizadeh, Carolyn Subramaniam, Ping Lee, Rigel Kishton, Amanda N. Henning, Michael J. Kruhlak, Zhiya Yu, Ethan M. Shevach, Toren Finkel, Eytan Ruppin, Nicholas P. Restifo. Integrated computational and experimental analysis identifies the mitochondrial uncoupling protein 2 (Ucp2) as a key regulator of T cell anti-tumor function [abstract]. In: Proceedings of the American Association for Cancer Research Annual Meeting 2021; 2021 Apr 10-15 and May 17-21. Philadelphia (PA): AACR; Cancer Res 2021;81(13_Suppl):Abstract nr 1527.